April 21, 2020  |  

Isolation, cloning and characterization of an azoreductase and the effect of salinity on its expression in a halophilic bacterium.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of azo dye decolorization is important for the development of effective bioremediation for textile-colored wastewater. A halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. strain GT was isolated, which could degrade the azo dye Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR at 10% NaCl. The complete genome sequence of this strain was obtained using the PacBio RS II platform. Genome annotation revealed that four proteins are related to decolorization of azo dyes, such as azoreductase, laccases, benzene 1,2-dioxygenase, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The putative azoreductase gene of Halomonas sp. strain GT responsible for the decolorization of azo dye in high salt environment was isolated. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the azoG (azoreductase gene of Halomonas sp. strain GT) and its homologs constituted a new branch of the NADH depending azoreductases, with all the homologous sequence of the protein from halophilic bacteria. At high NaCl concentrations, azoreductase gene expression and azoreductase activity were restrained in Halomonas sp. strain GT, which resulted in low a decolorization rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


April 21, 2020  |  

The complete genome sequence of Thalassospira indica PB8BT insights into adaptation to the marine environment

Thalassospira indica PB8BT was isolated from the deep water of the Indian Ocean. Here we report the complete genome sequence of type strain PB8BT, which comprises 4,701,725?bp with a G?+?C content of 54.9?mol%. We found that numerous genes related to iron acquisition, resistance, motility and chemotaxis, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur metabolism, and stress response. These metabolic features and related genes revealed genetic basis for the adaptation to the marine environment. The genome of T. indica PB8BT will be helpful for further insights into its adaptive evolution and ecological role in marine environment.


September 22, 2019  |  

Bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter in Buryatia, Russia.

Traditional sour cream and butter are widely popular fermented dairy products in Russia for their flavor and nutrition, and contain rich microbial biodiversity, particularly in terms of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, few studies have described the microbial communities and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter. The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial microbiota and metabolic character of eight samples collected from herdsmen in Buryatia, Russia. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 294 species and/or subspecies in 169 bacterial genera, belonging to 14 phyla. The dominant phylum was Firmicutes (81.47%) and the dominant genus was Lactococcus (59.28%). There were differences between the bacterial compositions of the sour cream and butter samples. The relative abundances of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Acetobacter cibinongensis were significantly higher in sour cream than in butter, and the abundance of Streptococcusthermophilus was significantly lower in sour cream than in butter. Using a pure culture method, 48 strains were isolated and identified to represent seven genera and 15 species and/or subspecies. Among these isolates, Lactococccus lactis subsp. lactis (22.50%) was the dominant LAB species. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry at elevated energy was used in combination with statistical methods to detect metabolite differences between traditional sour cream and butter. A total of 27,822 metabolites were detected in all samples, and Lys-Lys, isohexanal, palmitic acid, Leu-Val, and 2′-deoxycytidine were the most dominant metabolites found in all samples. In addition, 27 significantly different metabolites were detected between the sour cream and butter samples, including short peptides, organic acids, and amino acids. Based on correlation analyses between the most prevalent bacterial species and the main metabolites in sour cream, we conclude that there may be a connection between the dominant LAB species and these metabolites. This study combined omics techniques to analyze the bacterial diversity and metabolic character of traditional sour cream and butter, and we hope that our findings will enrich species resource libraries and provide valuable resources for further research on dairy product flavor.


September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequencing of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001, a potential probiotic that enhances intestinal epithelial barrier function and defense against pathogens in pigs.

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with the most abundant, and one of the most diverse, microbial communities. The gut microbiota, which may contain more than 100 times the number of genes in the human genome, endows the host with beneficial functional features, including colonization resistance, nutrient metabolism, and immune tolerance (Bäckhed, 2005). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may result in serious adverse consequences for the host, such as neurological disorders, cancer, obesity, malnutrition, inflammatory dysregulation, and susceptibility to pathogens


July 7, 2019  |  

Aestuarium zhoushanense gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated from the Tidal Flat.

A gram-stain-negative, aerobic, ovoid or short rod-shaped, and non-motile strain, designed G7T was isolated from a tidal flat sample collected from the coast of East Sea in Zhoushan, China. Strain G7T grew at 4-40 °C and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 28 °C and pH 7.5) and with 0-7% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1%). The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids (>10%) identified were C18:1 ?7c, C16:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c). The polar lipids of strain G7T consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and four unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 56.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain G7T formed a distinct lineage belonging to the Roseobacter clade of the family Rhodobacteraceae. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with the results of phylogenetic analysis, strain G7T is described as a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Aestuarium zhoushanense gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain G7T = MCCC 1K03229T = KCTC 52584T) is proposed.


July 7, 2019  |  

The pelagic bacterium Paraphotobacterium marinum has the smallest complete genome within the family Vibrionaceae.

Members of the family Vibrionaceae are metabolically versatile and ubiquitous in natural environments, with extraordinary genome feature of two chromosomes. Here we reported the complete genome of Paraphotobacterium marinum NSCS20N07D(T), a recently described novel genus-level species in the family Vibrionaceae. It contained two circular chromosomes with a size of 2,593,992 bp with G+C content of 31.2 mol%, and a plasmid with a size of 5,539 bp. The larger chromosome (Chr. I) had a genome size of 1,426,504 bp with G+C content of 31.6 mol%, and the smaller one (Chr. II) had a genome size of 1,161,949 bp with G+C content of 30.8 mol%. The two chromosomes have strikingly similar G+C contents with difference of <1% and similar percentages of coding regions. Interestingly, by comparison to 134 species affiliated with seven genera within the family Vibrionaceae, P. marinum NSCS20N07D(T) possessed the smallest genome size and lowest G+C content. Clusters of orthologous groups of proteins functional categories revealed that the two chromosomes had different distributions of functional classes, indicating they take different cellular functions. Surprisingly, Chr. II had a large proportion of unknown genes than Chr. I. Metabolic characteristics predicted that Chr. I performed the essential metabolism, which can be complemented by the Chr. II, such as amino acids biosynthesis. Microbial community analysis of in situ surface seawater revealed that P. marinum accounted for one to four sequences among more than 20,000 of 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4 contigs, representing it apparently appeared as a rare species. What's more, P. marinum was anticipated to be specific to the pelagic ocean. This study will provide new insight into more understanding the genomic and metabolic features of multiple chromosomes in prokaryote and emphasize the ecological distribution of the members in the family Vibrionaceae as a rare species.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomics and biochemistry investigation on the metabolic pathway of milled wood and alkali lignin-derived aromatic metabolites of Comamonas serinivorans SP-35.

The efficient depolymerization and utilization of lignin are one of the most important goals for the renewable use of lignocelluloses. The degradation and complete mineralization of lignin by bacteria represent a key step for carbon recycling in land ecosystems as well. However, many aspects of this process remain unclear, for example, the complex network of metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of lignin and the catabolic pathway of intermediate aromatic metabolites. To address these subjects, we characterized the deconstruction and mineralization of lignin with milled wood lignin (MWL, the most representative molecule of lignin in its native state) and alkali lignin (AL), and elucidated metabolic pathways of their intermediate metabolites by a bacterium named Comamonas serinivorans SP-35.The degradation rate of MWL reached 30.9%, and its particle size range was decreased from 6 to 30 µm to 2-4 µm-when cultured with C. serinivorans SP35 over 7 days. FTIR analysis showed that the C-C and C-O-C bonds between the phenyl propane structures of lignin were oxidized and cleaved and the side chain structure was modified. More than twenty intermediate aromatic metabolites were identified in the MWL and AL cultures based on GC-MS analysis. Through genome sequencing and annotation, and from GC-MS analysis, 93 genes encoding 33 enzymes and 5 regulatory factors that may be involved in lignin degradation were identified and more than nine metabolic pathways of lignin and its intermediates were predicted. Of particular note is that the metabolic pathway to form the powerful antioxidant 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol is described for the first time in bacteria.Elucidation of the ß-aryl ether cleavage pathway in the strain SP-35 indicates that the ß-aryl ether catabolic system is not only present in the family of Sphingomonadaceae, but also other species of bacteria kingdom. These newly elucidated catabolic pathways of lignin in strain SP-35 and the enzymes responsible for them provide exciting biotechnological opportunities for lignin valorization in future.


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