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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High quality maize centromere 10 sequence reveals evidence of frequent recombination events.

The ancestral centromeres of maize contain long stretches of the tandemly arranged CentC repeat. The abundance of tandem DNA repeats and centromeric retrotransposons (CR) has presented a significant challenge to completely assembling centromeres using traditional sequencing methods. Here, we report a nearly complete assembly of the 1.85 Mb maize centromere 10 from inbred B73 using PacBio technology and BACs from the reference genome project. The error rates estimated from overlapping BAC sequences are 7 × 10(-6) and 5 × 10(-5) for mismatches and indels, respectively. The number of gaps in the region covered by the reassembly was reduced from 140…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detection of translocatable units in a blaCTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing ST131 Escherichia coli isolate using a hybrid sequencing approach.

Sir,Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) producing CTX- M-type [3-lactamases are the most common extended-spectrum [3-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains and are of high virulence potential. In particular, the blal-;X.M.[5 gene is often encoded on a conjugative plasmid and less frequently on the chromo- some. The presence of identical bluCTX.M.[5 alleles on both the chromosome and on a plasmid in the same strain has been reported [1], suggesting transfer ofthese genes between these two locations.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida.

Petunia hybrida is a popular bedding plant that has a long history as a genetic model system. We report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of inbred derivatives of its two wild parents, P. axillaris N and P. inflata S6. The assemblies include 91.3% and 90.2% coverage of their diploid genomes (1.4 Gb; 2n?=?14) containing 32,928 and 36,697 protein-coding genes, respectively. The genomes reveal that the Petunia lineage has experienced at least two rounds of hexaploidization: the older gamma event, which is shared with most Eudicots, and a more recent Solanaceae event that is shared with tomato and other solanaceous species.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of the first cultured representative of Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5 indicates the proposal of a novel phylum.

The recently isolated strain L21-Fru-AB(T) represents moderately halophilic, obligately anaerobic and saccharolytic bacteria that thrive in the suboxic transition zones of hypersaline microbial mats. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes, RpoB proteins and gene content indicated that strain L21-Fru-AB(T) represents a novel species and genus affiliated with a distinct phylum-level lineage originally designated Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5. A survey of environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members of this newly recognized phylum are wide-spread and ecologically important in various anoxic environments ranging from hypersaline sediments to wastewater and the intestine of animals. Characteristic phenotypic traits of the novel strain…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Vibrio anguillarum is genetically and phenotypically unaffected by long-term continuous exposure to the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid.

Minimizing the use of antibiotics in the food production chain is essential for limiting the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One alternative intervention strategy is the use of probiotic bacteria, and bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are capable of antagonizing fish-pathogenic vibrios in fish larvae and live feed cultures for fish larvae. The antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), an antiporter that disrupts the proton motive force, is key in the antibacterial activity of several roseobacters. Introducing probiotics on a larger scale requires understanding of any potential side effects of long-term exposure of the pathogen to the probionts or…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chromosomal locations of mcr-1 and bla CTX-M-15 in fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli ST410.

To the Editor: Recently, Yi-Yun Liu et al. reported on the discovery of mcr-1, a plasmidborne resistance gene mediating resistance to colistin, in isolates obtained from humans and animals (1). Since the original publication, mcr-1 with or without the insertion element ISApl1 has been detected on plasmids of different incompatibility groups, including IncI2, IncHI2, and IncX4, and in many different countries (1–3). Because colistin is a last-resort parenteral antimicrobial drug, the transfer of mcr-1 by conjugation or through mobilizable plasmids raises concern about the emergence of pan-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative evaluation of the genomes of three common Drosophila-associated bacteria.

Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to explore the molecular exchanges that occur between an animal intestine and associated microbes. Previous studies in Drosophila uncovered a sophisticated web of host responses to intestinal bacteria. The outcomes of these responses define critical events in the host, such as the establishment of immune responses, access to nutrients, and the rate of larval development. Despite our steady march towards illuminating the host machinery that responds to bacterial presence in the gut, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the microbial products that influence bacterial association with a fly host. We sequenced and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maeA mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4054 lacking the malic enzyme.

It has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in Streptomyces. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in P. luteoviolacea S4054. Using Tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in mannose-containing substrates was created. Full genome analyses revealed that the vio-biosynthetic gene cluster was not interrupted by the transposon; instead the insertion was located to the maeA gene…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome of Dietzia timorensis ID05-A0528(T) revealed the genetic basis for its saline-alkali tolerance.

The type strain Dietzia timorensis ID05-A0528(T), was reported to be able to survive in the highly saline and alkaline environments with diverse carbon sources. In order to more pertinently understand the genetic mechanisms of its environmental tolerance and crude oil emulsification, we reported the complete genome sequence of the strain in the study. The genome contains only one circular chromosome, with the total size of 3,607,892 bps, and the G+C content of this strain is 65.58%, much lower than other type strains of this genus. It was found that strain ID05-A0528(T) contains genes involved in transportation and biosynthesis of compatible…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization and comparative overview of complete sequences of the first plasmids of Pandoraea across clinical and non-clinical strains.

To date, information on plasmid analysis in Pandoraea spp. is scarce. To address the gap of knowledge on this, the complete sequences of eight plasmids from Pandoraea spp. namely Pandoraea faecigallinarum DSM 23572(T) (pPF72-1, pPF72-2), Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) (pPO70-1, pPO70-2, pPO70-3, pPO70-4), Pandoraea vervacti NS15 (pPV15) and Pandoraea apista DSM 16535(T) (pPA35) were studied for the first time in this study. The information on plasmid sequences in Pandoraea spp. is useful as the sequences did not match any known plasmid sequence deposited in public databases. Replication genes were not identified in some plasmids, a situation that has led to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium estertheticum DSM 8809, a microbe identified in spoiled vacuum packed beef.

Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk. In this study the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. strain CIB 2401 of the phylum Chlorobi.

To date, only 13 genomes of green sulfur bacteria (family Chlorobiaceae) have been sequenced. The sequenced strains do not cover the full phylogenetic diversity of the family. We determined the complete genome sequence of Prosthecochloris sp. strain CIB 2401, thereby increasing the genome information for the poorly represented marine Chlorobiaceae. Copyright © 2016 Nabhan et al.

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