July 19, 2019  |  

The power of Single Molecule Real-Time sequencing technology in the de novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome.

Second-generation sequencers (SGS) have been game-changing, achieving cost-effective whole genome sequencing in many non-model organisms. However, a large portion of the genomes still remains unassembled. We reconstructed azuki bean (Vigna angularis) genome using single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and achieved the best contiguity and coverage among currently assembled legume crops. The SMRT-based assembly produced 100 times longer contigs with 100 times smaller amount of gaps compared to the SGS-based assemblies. A detailed comparison between the assemblies revealed that the SMRT-based assembly enabled a more comprehensive gene annotation than the SGS-based assemblies where thousands of genes were missing or fragmented. A chromosome-scale assembly was generated based on the high-density genetic map, covering 86% of the azuki bean genome. We demonstrated that SMRT technology, though still needed support of SGS data, achieved a near-complete assembly of a eukaryotic genome.


July 19, 2019  |  

The composite 259-kb plasmid of Martelella mediterranea DSM 17316(T)-a natural replicon with functional RepABC modules from Rhodobacteraceae and Rhizobiaceae.

A multipartite genome organization with a chromosome and many extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) is characteristic for Alphaproteobacteria. The best investigated ECRs of terrestrial rhizobia are the symbiotic plasmids for legume root nodulation and the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. RepABC plasmids represent the most abundant alphaproteobacterial replicon type. The currently known homologous replication modules of rhizobia and Rhodobacteraceae are phylogenetically distinct. In this study, we surveyed type-strain genomes from the One Thousand Microbial Genomes (KMG-I) project and identified a roseobacter-specific RepABC-type operon in the draft genome of the marine rhizobium Martelella mediterranea DSM 17316(T). PacBio genome sequencing demonstrated the presence of three circular ECRs with sizes of 593, 259, and 170-kb. The rhodobacteral RepABC module is located together with a rhizobial equivalent on the intermediate sized plasmid pMM259, which likely originated in the fusion of a pre-existing rhizobial ECR with a conjugated roseobacter plasmid. Further evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is given by the presence of a roseobacter-specific type IV secretion system on the 259-kb plasmid and the rhodobacteracean origin of 62% of the genes on this plasmid. Functionality tests documented that the genuine rhizobial RepABC module from the Martelella 259-kb plasmid is only maintained in A. tumefaciens C58 (Rhizobiaceae) but not in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 (Rhodobacteraceae). Unexpectedly, the roseobacter-like replication system is functional and stably maintained in both host strains, thus providing evidence for a broader host range than previously proposed. In conclusion, pMM259 is the first example of a natural plasmid that likely mediates genetic exchange between roseobacters and rhizobia.


July 19, 2019  |  

Comparative genomic analyses of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus and pathogenicity on Medicago truncatula.

Clavibacter michiganensis is the most economically important gram-positive bacterial plant pathogen with subspecies that cause serious diseases of maize, wheat, tomato, potato, and alfalfa. Much less is known about pathogenesis involving gram-positive plant pathogens than is known for gram-negative bacteria. Comparative genome analyses of C. michiganensis subspecies affecting tomato, potato, and maize have provided insights on pathogenicity. In this study, we identified strains of C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus with contrasting pathogenicity on three accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula. We generated complete genome sequences for two strains and compared these to a previously sequenced strain and genome sequences of four other subspecies. The three C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus strains varied in gene content due to genome rearrangements, most likely facilitated by insertion elements, and plasmid number, which varied from one to three depending on strain. The core C. michiganensis genome consisted of 1,930 genes, with 401 genes unique to C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus. An operon for synthesis of the extracellular blue pigment indigoidine, enzymes for pectin degradation, and an operon for inositol metabolism are among the unique features. Secreted serine proteases belonging to both the pat-1 and ppa families were present but highly diverged from those in other subspecies.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of the dark pink pigmented Listia bainesii microsymbiont Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598.

Strains of a pink-pigmented Methylobacterium sp. are effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing microsymbionts of species of the African crotalarioid genus Listia. Strain WSM2598 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod isolated in 2002 from a Listia bainesii root nodule collected at Estcourt Research Station in South Africa. Here we describe the features of Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598, together with information and annotation of a high-quality draft genome sequence. The 7,669,765 bp draft genome is arranged in 5 scaffolds of 83 contigs, contains 7,236 protein-coding genes and 18 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 G enomic E ncyclopedia for B acteria and A rchaea- R oot N odule B acteria (GEBA-RNB) project.


July 7, 2019  |  

Permanent draft genome sequences of the symbiotic nitrogen fixing Ensifer meliloti strains BO21CC and AK58.

Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) meliloti is an important symbiotic bacterial species that fixes nitrogen. Strains BO21CC and AK58 were previously investigated for their substrate utilization and their plant-growth promoting abilities showing interesting features. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of these strains. BO21CC and AK58 genomes are 6,985,065 and 6,974,333 bp long with 6,746 and 6,992 genes predicted, respectively.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome assembly and annotation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, a medicinal legume.

Chinese liquorice/licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a leguminous plant species whose roots and rhizomes have been widely used as a herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Whole-genome sequencing is essential for gene discovery studies and molecular breeding in liquorice. Here, we report a draft assembly of the approximately 379-Mb whole-genome sequence of strain 308-19 of G. uralensis; this assembly contains 34 445 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses suggested well-conserved genomic components and collinearity of gene loci (synteny) between the genome of liquorice and those of other legumes such as Medicago and chickpea. We observed that three genes involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis, namely, 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (CYP93C), 2,7,4′-trihydroxyisoflavanone 4′-O-methyltransferase/isoflavone 4′-O-methyltransferase (HI4OMT) and isoflavone-7-O-methyltransferase (7-IOMT) formed a cluster on the scaffold of the liquorice genome and showed conserved microsynteny with Medicago and chickpea. Based on the liquorice genome annotation, we predicted genes in the P450 and UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamilies, some of which are involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, and characterised their gene expression with the reference genome sequence. The genome sequencing and its annotations provide an essential resource for liquorice improvement through molecular breeding and the discovery of useful genes for engineering bioactive components through synthetic biology approaches.© 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

A novel inversion in the chloroplast genome of marama (Tylosema esculentum).

Tylosema esculentum (marama bean) is being developed as a possible crop for resource-poor farmers in arid regions of Southern Africa. As part of the molecular characterization of this species, the chloroplast genome has been assembled from next-generation sequencing using both Illumina and Pac-Bio data. The genome is of typical organization with a large single-copy region and a small single-copy region separated by a pair of inverted repeats and covers 161537 bp. It contains a unique inversion not present in any other legumes, even in the closest relatives for which the complete chloroplast genome is available, and two complete copies of the ycf1 gene. These data extend the range of variability of legume chloroplast genomes. The sequencing of multiple individuals has identified two different chloroplast genomes which were geographically separated. The current sampling is limited so that the extent of the intraspecific variation is still to be determined, leaving open the question of legume chloroplast genomes adapted to particular arid environments.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Hybrid assembly with long and short reads improves discovery of gene family expansions.

Long-read and short-read sequencing technologies offer competing advantages for eukaryotic genome sequencing projects. Combinations of both may be appropriate for surveys of within-species genomic variation.We developed a hybrid assembly pipeline called “Alpaca” that can operate on 20X long-read coverage plus about 50X short-insert and 50X long-insert short-read coverage. To preclude collapse of tandem repeats, Alpaca relies on base-call-corrected long reads for contig formation.Compared to two other assembly protocols, Alpaca demonstrated the most reference agreement and repeat capture on the rice genome. On three accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula, Alpaca generated the most agreement to a conspecific reference and predicted tandemly repeated genes absent from the other assemblies.Our results suggest Alpaca is a useful tool for investigating structural and copy number variation within de novo assemblies of sampled populations.


July 7, 2019  |  

Strategies for optimizing BioNano and Dovetail explored through a second reference quality assembly for the legume model, Medicago truncatula.

Third generation sequencing technologies, with sequencing reads in the tens- of kilo-bases, facilitate genome assembly by spanning ambiguous regions and improving continuity. This has been critical for plant genomes, which are difficult to assemble due to high repeat content, gene family expansions, segmental and tandem duplications, and polyploidy. Recently, high-throughput mapping and scaffolding strategies have further improved continuity. Together, these long-range technologies enable quality draft assemblies of complex genomes in a cost-effective and timely manner.Here, we present high quality genome assemblies of the model legume plant, Medicago truncatula (R108) using PacBio, Dovetail Chicago (hereafter, Dovetail) and BioNano technologies. To test these technologies for plant genome assembly, we generated five assemblies using all possible combinations and ordering of these three technologies in the R108 assembly. While the BioNano and Dovetail joins overlapped, they also showed complementary gains in continuity and join numbers. Both technologies spanned repetitive regions that PacBio alone was unable to bridge. Combining technologies, particularly Dovetail followed by BioNano, resulted in notable improvements compared to Dovetail or BioNano alone. A combination of PacBio, Dovetail, and BioNano was used to generate a high quality draft assembly of R108, a M. truncatula accession widely used in studies of functional genomics. As a test for the usefulness of the resulting genome sequence, the new R108 assembly was used to pinpoint breakpoints and characterize flanking sequence of a previously identified translocation between chromosomes 4 and 8, identifying more than 22.7 Mb of novel sequence not present in the earlier A17 reference assembly.Adding Dovetail followed by BioNano data yielded complementary improvements in continuity over the original PacBio assembly. This strategy proved efficient and cost-effective for developing a quality draft assembly compared to traditional reference assemblies.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS285, a photosynthetic strain able to establish Nod factor-dependent or Nod factor-independent symbiosis with Aeschynomene legumes.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285, which is able to nodulate Aeschynomene legumes using two distinct strategies that differ in the requirement of Nod factors. The genome sequence information of this strain will help understanding of the different mechanisms of interaction of rhizobia with legumes. Copyright © 2017 Gully et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

First complete genome sequences of Xanthomonas citri pv. vignicola strains CFBP7111, CFBP7112, and CFBP7113 obtained using long-read technology

Xanthomonas citri pv. vignicola strains cause bacterial blight of the legume crop cowpea. We report whole-genome sequences of three X. citri pv. vignicola strains obtained using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing. Such genomic data provide new information on pathogenicity factors, such as transcription activator-like effectors. Copyright © 2017 Ruh et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae WSM1497, an efficient nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont of the forage legume Biserrula pelecinus.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1497, the efficient nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont and commercial inoculant in Australia of the forage legume Biserrula pelecinus The genome consists of 7.2 Mb distributed across a single chromosome (6.67 Mb) and a single plasmid (0.53 Mb). Copyright © 2017 Brewer et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

The Vigna Genome Server, ‘VigGS’: A genomic knowledge base of the genus Vigna based on high-quality, annotated genome sequence of the azuki bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server (‘VigGS’, http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops.© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1284, an efficient nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus.

We report the complete genome sequence of Mesorhizobium ciceri bv. biserrulae strain WSM1284, a nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus The genome consists of 6.88 Mb distributed between a single chromosome (6.33 Mb) and a single plasmid (0.55 Mb). Copyright © 2016 Haskett et al.


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