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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic studies of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and nodules.

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseoli, R. trifolii, R. grahamii and Sinorhizobium americanum, were able to colonize Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) seeds. To gain further insight into the traits that support this ability, we analyzed the genomic sequences and proteomes of R. phaseoli (CCGM1) and S. americanum (CCGM7) strains from seeds and compared them with those of the closely related strains CIAT652 and CFNEI73, respectively, isolated only from nodules.In a fine structural study of the S. americanum genomes,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for medical, veterinary and forensic research.

Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are important medical, veterinary and forensic insects encompassing 8 % of the species diversity observed in the calyptrate insects. Few genomic resources exist to understand the diversity and evolution of this group.We present the hybrid (short and long reads) draft assemblies of the male and female genomes of the common North American blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The 550 and 534 Mb draft assemblies contained 8312 and 9490 predicted genes in the female and male genomes, respectively; including?>?93 % conserved eukaryotic genes. Putative X and Y chromosomes (21 and 14 Mb, respectively) were assembled and annotated. The P. regina…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Function and phylogeny of bacterial butyryl coenzyme A: acetate transferases and their diversity in the proximal colon of swine.

Studying the host-associated butyrate-producing bacterial community is important, because butyrate is essential for colonic homeostasis and gut health. Previous research has identified the butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase (EC 2.3.8.3) as a gene of primary importance for butyrate production in intestinal ecosystems; however, this gene family (but) remains poorly defined. We developed tools for the analysis of butyrate-producing bacteria based on 12 putative but genes identified in the genomes of nine butyrate-producing bacteria obtained from the swine intestinal tract. Functional analyses revealed that eight of these genes had strong But enzyme activity. When but paralogues were found within a genome,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assembly and transfer of tripartite integrative and conjugative genetic elements.

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as “genomic islands” within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts of legumes. Here we report the discovery of symbiosis ICEs that exist as three separate chromosomal regions when integrated in their hosts, but through recombination assemble as a single circular ICE for conjugative transfer. Whole-genome comparisons revealed exconjugants derived from nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia received three separate chromosomal regions from the donor Mesorhizobium ciceri WSM1271. The three regions were each bordered by two nonhomologous integrase attachment (att) sites, which together comprised three homologous pairs of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An ethnically relevant consensus Korean reference genome is a step towards personal reference genomes.

Human genomes are routinely compared against a universal reference. However, this strategy could miss population-specific and personal genomic variations, which may be detected more efficiently using an ethnically relevant or personal reference. Here we report a hybrid assembly of a Korean reference genome (KOREF) for constructing personal and ethnic references by combining sequencing and mapping methods. We also build its consensus variome reference, providing information on millions of variants from 40 additional ethnically homogeneous genomes from the Korean Personal Genome Project. We find that the ethnically relevant consensus reference can be beneficial for efficient variant detection. Systematic comparison of human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Decay of sexual trait genes in an asexual parasitoid wasp.

Trait loss is a widespread phenomenon with pervasive consequences for a species’ evolutionary potential. The genetic changes underlying trait loss have only been clarified in a small number of cases. None of these studies can identify whether the loss of the trait under study was a result of neutral mutation accumulation or negative selection. This distinction is relatively clear-cut in the loss of sexual traits in asexual organisms. Male-specific sexual traits are not expressed and can only decay through neutral mutations, whereas female-specific traits are expressed and subject to negative selection. We present the genome of an asexual parasitoid wasp…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome de novo sequencing, combined with RNA-Seq analysis, reveals unique genome and physiological features of the amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and its interspecies hybrid.

Genomic studies on fungal species with hydrolytic activity have gained increased attention due to their great biotechnological potential for biomass-based biofuel production. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera has served as a good source of enzymes and genes involved in saccharification. Despite its long history of use in food fermentation and bioethanol production, very little is known about the basic physiology and genomic features of S. fibuligera.We performed whole-genome (WG) de novo sequencing and complete assembly of S. fibuligera KJJ81 and KPH12, two isolates from wheat-based Nuruk in Korea. Intriguingly, the KJJ81 genome (~38 Mb) was revealed as a hybrid between the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High-quality draft genome sequence of the actinobacterium Nocardia terpenica IFM 0406, producer of the immunosuppressant brasilicardins, using Illumina and PacBio technologies.

The bacterium Nocardia terpenica IFM 0406 is known as the producer of the immunosuppressant brasilicardin A. Here, we report the completely sequenced genome of strain IFM 0406, which facilitates the heterologous expression of the brasilicardin biosynthetic gene cluster but also unveils the intriguing biosynthetic capacity of the strain to produce secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Buchmann et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of six Legionella pneumophila isolates from two collocated outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease in 2005 and 2008 in Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad, Norway.

Here, we report the complete genome sequences of Legionella pneumophila isolates from two collocated outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease in 2005 and 2008 in Sarpsborg/Fredrikstad, Norway. One clinical and two environmental isolates were sequenced from each outbreak. The genome of all six isolates consisted of a 3.36 Mb-chromosome, while the 2005 genomes featured an additional 68 kb-episome sharing high sequence similarity with the L. pneumophila Lens plasmid. All six genomes contained multiple mobile genetic elements including novel combinations of type-IVA secretion systems. A comparative genomics study will be launched to resolve the genetic relationship between the L. pneumophila isolates. Copyright © 2016 Dybwad et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome anatomy of the emerging potato pathogen Dickeya solani type strain IPO 2222(T).

Several species of the genus Dickeya provoke soft rot and blackleg diseases on a wide range of plants and crops. Dickeya solani has been identified as the causative agent of diseases outbreaks on potato culture in Europe for the last decade. Here, we report the complete genome of the D. solani IPO 2222(T). Using PacBio and Illumina technologies, a unique circular chromosome of 4,919,833 bp was assembled. The G?+?C content reaches 56% and the genomic sequence contains 4,059 predicted proteins. The ANI values calculated for D. solani IPO 2222(T) vs. other available D. solani genomes was over 99.9% indicating a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The draft genome of whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host adaptation, and insecticide resistance.

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is among the 100 worst invasive species in the world. As one of the most important crop pests and virus vectors, B. tabaci causes substantial crop losses and poses a serious threat to global food security. We report the 615-Mb high-quality genome sequence of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), the first genome sequence in the Aleyrodidae family, which contains 15,664 protein-coding genes. The B. tabaci genome is highly divergent from other sequenced hemipteran genomes, sharing no detectable synteny. A number of known detoxification gene families, including cytochrome P450s and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, are significantly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae strain KC-Na-1, isolated from the finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis)

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PDD) is a marine bacterium that can infect a variety of marine animals and humans. Although this bacterium has been isolated from several stranded dolphins and whales, its pathogenic role in cetaceans is still unclear. In this study, we report the complete genome of PDD strain KC-Na-1 isolated from a finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) rescued from the South Sea (Republic of Korea). The sequenced genome comprised two chromosomes and four plasmids. Among the recently identified major virulence factors in PDD, only phospholipase (plpV) was found in strain KC-Na-1. Interestingly, two genes homologous to Vibrio thermostable direct…

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