April 21, 2020  |  

High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Strain 160527, a Causal Agent of Panama Disease.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt, also known as Panama disease. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense strain 160527. The genome assembly is composed of 12 contigs with a total assembly length of 51,139,495?bp (N50 contig length, 4,884,632?bp). Copyright © 2019 Asai et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Draft Genome Sequence of the Wood-Decaying Fungus Xylaria sp. BCC 1067.

Xylaria sp. BCC 1067 is a wood-decaying fungus which is capable of producing lignocellulolytic enzymes. Based on the results of a single-molecule real-time sequencing technology analysis, we present the first draft genome of Xylaria sp. BCC 1067, comprising 54.1?Mb with 12,112 protein-coding genes.Copyright © 2019 Sutheeworapong et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Relative Performance of MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) versus Sequel (Pacific Biosciences) Third-Generation Sequencing Instruments in Identification of Agricultural and Forest Fungal Pathogens.

Culture-based molecular identification methods have revolutionized detection of pathogens, yet these methods are slow and may yield inconclusive results from environmental materials. The second-generation sequencing tools have much-improved precision and sensitivity of detection, but these analyses are costly and may take several days to months. Of the third-generation sequencing techniques, the portable MinION device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) has received much attention because of its small size and possibility of rapid analysis at reasonable cost. Here, we compare the relative performances of two third-generation sequencing instruments, MinION and Sequel (Pacific Biosciences), in identification and diagnostics of fungal and oomycete pathogens from conifer (Pinaceae) needles and potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves and tubers. We demonstrate that the Sequel instrument is efficient for metabarcoding of complex samples, whereas MinION is not suited for this purpose due to a high error rate and multiple biases. However, we find that MinION can be utilized for rapid and accurate identification of dominant pathogenic organisms and other associated organisms from plant tissues following both amplicon-based and PCR-free metagenomics approaches. Using the metagenomics approach with shortened DNA extraction and incubation times, we performed the entire MinION workflow, from sample preparation through DNA extraction, sequencing, bioinformatics, and interpretation, in 2.5 h. We advocate the use of MinION for rapid diagnostics of pathogens and potentially other organisms, but care needs to be taken to control or account for multiple potential technical biases.IMPORTANCE Microbial pathogens cause enormous losses to agriculture and forestry, but current combined culturing- and molecular identification-based detection methods are too slow for rapid identification and application of countermeasures. Here, we develop new and rapid protocols for Oxford Nanopore MinION-based third-generation diagnostics of plant pathogens that greatly improve the speed of diagnostics. However, due to high error rate and technical biases in MinION, the Pacific BioSciences Sequel platform is more useful for in-depth amplicon-based biodiversity monitoring (metabarcoding) from complex environmental samples.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


April 21, 2020  |  

First Draft Genome Sequence of a Pearl Millet Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea Strain PMg_Dl, Obtained Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time and Illumina NextSeq 500 Sequencing.

The first draft genome sequence of the pearl millet blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea PMg_Dl from India is presented. The genome information of M. grisea will be useful to understand the Magnaporthe speciation, genetic diversity, environmental adaptation, and pathogenic and host range determinants.Copyright © 2019 Prakash et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole-Genome Sequence of an Isogenic Haploid Strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2idA30(MATa), Established from the Industrial Diploid Strain IR-2.

We present the draft genome sequence of an isogenic haploid strain, IR-2idA30(MATa), established from Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2. Assembly of long reads and previously obtained contigs from the genome of diploid IR-2 resulted in 50 contigs, and the variations and sequencing errors were corrected by short reads. Copyright © 2019 Fujimori et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Resequencing the Genome of Malassezia restricta Strain KCTC 27527.

The draft genome sequence of Malassezia restricta KCTC 27527, a clinical isolate from a patient with dandruff, was previously reported. Using the PacBio Sequel platform, we completed and reannotated the genome of M. restricta KCTC 27527 for a better understanding of the genome of this fungus.Copyright © 2019 Cho et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome Sequence of a California Isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Race 3, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Tomato.

Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is an increasingly important disease of tomato. This paper reports the high-quality draft genome assembly of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate D11 (race 3), which consists of 39 scaffolds with 57,281,978?bp (GC content, 47.5%), an N50 of 4,408,267?bp, a mean read coverage of 99.8×, and 17,682 predicted genes. Copyright © 2019 Henry et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Transposable Elements Adaptive Role in Genome Plasticity, Pathogenicity and Evolution in Fungal Phytopathogens.

Transposable elements (TEs) are agents of genetic variability in phytopathogens as they are a source of adaptive evolution through genome diversification. Although many studies have uncovered information on TEs, the exact mechanism behind TE-induced changes within the genome remains poorly understood. Furthermore, convergent trends towards bigger genomes, emergence of novel genes and gain or loss of genes implicate a TE-regulated genome plasticity of fungal phytopathogens. TEs are able to alter gene expression by revamping the cis-regulatory elements or recruiting epigenetic control. Recent findings show that TEs recruit epigenetic control on the expression of effector genes as part of the coordinated infection strategy. In addition to genome plasticity and diversity, fungal pathogenicity is an area of economic concern. A survey of TE distribution suggests that their proximity to pathogenicity genes TEs may act as sites for emergence of novel pathogenicity factors via nucleotide changes and expansion or reduction of the gene family. Through a systematic survey of literature, we were able to conclude that the role of TEs in fungi is wide: ranging from genome plasticity, pathogenicity to adaptive behavior in evolution. This review also identifies the gaps in knowledge that requires further elucidation for a better understanding of TEs’ contribution to genome architecture and versatility.


April 21, 2020  |  

Heterologous Expression of Ilicicolin H Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Production of a New Potent Antifungal Reagent, Ilicicolin J.

Ilicicolin H is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent targeting mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 reductase. Unfortunately, ilicicolin H shows reduced activities in vivo. Here, we report our effort on the identification of ilicicolin H biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) by genomic sequencing a producing strain, Neonectria sp. DH2, and its heterologous production in Aspergillus nidulans. In addition, a shunt product with similar antifungal activities, ilicicolin J, was uncovered. This effort would provide a base for future combinatorial biosynthesis of ilicicolin H analogues. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the backbone of ilicicolin H is assembled by a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide synthethase (IliA), and then offloaded with a tetramic acid moiety. Similar to tenellin biosynthesis, the tetramic acid is then converted to pyridone by a putative P450, IliC. The decalin portion is most possibly constructed by a S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent Diels-Alderase (IliD).


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome Analysis of Hypomyces perniciosus, the Causal Agent of Wet Bubble Disease of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

The mycoparasitic fungus Hypomyces perniciosus causes wet bubble disease of mushrooms, particularly Agaricus bisporus. The genome of a highly virulent strain of H. perniciosus HP10 was sequenced and compared to three other fungi from the order Hypocreales that cause disease on A. bisporus. H. perniciosus genome is ~44 Mb, encodes 10,077 genes and enriched with transposable elements up to 25.3%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that H. perniciosus is closely related to Cladobotryum protrusum and diverged from their common ancestor ~156.7 million years ago. H. perniciosus has few secreted proteins compared to C. protrusum and Trichoderma virens, but significantly expanded protein families of transporters, protein kinases, CAZymes (GH 18), peptidases, cytochrome P450, and SMs that are essential for mycoparasitism and adaptation to harsh environments. This study provides insights into H. perniciosus evolution and pathogenesis and will contribute to the development of effective disease management strategies to control wet bubble disease.


April 21, 2020  |  

Mitovirus and Mitochondrial Coding Sequences from Basal Fungus Entomophthora muscae.

Fungi constituting the Entomophthora muscae species complex (members of subphylum Entomophthoromycotina, phylum Zoopagamycota) commonly kill their insect hosts and manipulate host behaviors in the process. In this study, we made use of public transcriptome data to identify and characterize eight new species of mitoviruses associated with several different E. muscae isolates. Mitoviruses are simple RNA viruses that replicate in host mitochondria and are frequently found in more phylogenetically apical fungi (members of subphylum Glomeromyoctina, phylum Mucoromycota, phylum Basidiomycota and phylum Ascomycota) as well as in plants. E. muscae is the first fungus from phylum Zoopagomycota, and thereby the most phylogenetically basal fungus, found to harbor mitoviruses to date. Multiple UGA (Trp) codons are found not only in each of the new mitovirus sequences from E. muscae but also in mitochondrial core-gene coding sequences newly assembled from E. muscae transcriptome data, suggesting that UGA (Trp) is not a rarely used codon in the mitochondria of this fungus. The presence of mitoviruses in these basal fungi has possible implications for the evolution of these viruses.


April 21, 2020  |  

Cellular Dynamics and Genomic Identity of Centromeres in Cereal Blast Fungus.

Precise kinetochore-microtubule interactions ensure faithful chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. Centromeres, identified as scaffolding sites for kinetochore assembly, are among the most rapidly evolving chromosomal loci in terms of the DNA sequence and length and organization of intrinsic elements. Neither the centromere structure nor the kinetochore dynamics is well studied in plant-pathogenic fungi. Here, we sought to understand the process of chromosome segregation in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae High-resolution imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged inner kinetochore proteins CenpA and CenpC revealed unusual albeit transient declustering of centromeres just before anaphase separation of chromosomes in M. oryzae Strikingly, the declustered centromeres positioned randomly at the spindle midzone without an apparent metaphase plate per se Using CenpA chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing, all seven centromeres in M. oryzae were found to be regional, spanning 57-kb to 109-kb transcriptionally poor regions. Highly AT-rich and heavily methylated DNA sequences were the only common defining features of all the centromeres in rice blast. Lack of centromere-specific DNA sequence motifs or repetitive elements suggests an epigenetic specification of centromere function in M. oryzae PacBio genome assemblies and synteny analyses facilitated comparison of the centromeric/pericentromeric regions in distinct isolates of rice blast and wheat blast and in Magnaporthiopsis poae Overall, this study revealed unusual centromere dynamics and precisely identified the centromere loci in the top model fungal pathogens that belong to Magnaporthales and cause severe losses in the global production of food crops and turf grasses.IMPORTANCEMagnaporthe oryzae is an important fungal pathogen that causes a loss of 10% to 30% of the annual rice crop due to the devastating blast disease. In most organisms, kinetochores are clustered together or arranged at the metaphase plate to facilitate synchronized anaphase separation of sister chromatids in mitosis. In this study, we showed that the initially clustered kinetochores separate and position randomly prior to anaphase in M. oryzae Centromeres in M. oryzae occupy large genomic regions and form on AT-rich DNA without any common sequence motifs. Overall, this study identified atypical kinetochore dynamics and mapped functional centromeres in M. oryzae to define the roles of centromeric and pericentric boundaries in kinetochore assembly on epigenetically specified centromere loci. This study should pave the way for further understanding of the contribution of heterochromatin in genome stability and virulence of the blast fungus and its related species of high economic importance.Copyright © 2019 Yadav et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome Sequencing Illustrates the Genetic Basis of the Pharmacological Properties of Gloeostereum incarnatum.

Gloeostereum incarnatum is a precious edible mushroom that is widely grown in Asia and known for its useful medicinal properties. Here, we present a high-quality genome of G. incarnatum using the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform. The G. incarnatum genome, which is the first complete genome to be sequenced in the family Cyphellaceae, was 38.67 Mbp, with an N50 of 3.5 Mbp, encoding 15,251 proteins. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, the Cyphellaceae diverged ~174 million years ago. Several genes and gene clusters associated with lignocellulose degradation, secondary metabolites, and polysaccharide biosynthesis were identified in G. incarnatum, and compared with other medicinal mushrooms. In particular, we identified two terpenoid-associated gene clusters, each containing a gene encoding a sesterterpenoid synthase adjacent to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme. These clusters might participate in the biosynthesis of incarnal, a known bioactive sesterterpenoid produced by G. incarnatum. Through a transcriptomic analysis comparing the G. incarnatum mycelium and fruiting body, we also demonstrated that the genes associated with terpenoid biosynthesis were generally upregulated in the mycelium, while those associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis were generally upregulated in the fruiting body. This study provides insights into the genetic basis of the medicinal properties of G. incarnatum, laying a framework for future characterization of bioactive proteins and pharmaceutical uses of this fungus.


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