June 1, 2021  |  

De novo PacBio long-read assembled avian genomes correct and add to genes important in neuroscience and conservation research

To test the impact of high-quality genome assemblies on biological research, we applied PacBio long-read sequencing in conjunction with the new, diploid-aware FALCON-Unzip assembler to a number of bird species. These included: the zebra finch, for which a consortium-generated, Sanger-based reference exists, to determine how the FALCON-Unzip assembly would compare to the current best references available; Anna’s hummingbird genome, which had been assembled with short-read sequencing methods as part of the Avian Phylogenomics phase I initiative; and two critically endangered bird species (kakapo and ‘alala) of high importance for conservations efforts, whose genomes had not previously been sequenced and assembled.

June 1, 2021  |  

A high-quality genome assembly of SMRT sequences reveals long range haplotype structure in the diploid mosquito Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a tropical and subtropical mosquito vector for Zika, yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. We describe the first diploid assembly of an insect genome, using SMRT Sequencing and the open-source assembler FALCON-Unzip. This assembly has high contiguity (contig N50 1.3 Mb), is more complete than previous assemblies (Length 1.45 Gb with 87% BUSCO genes complete), and is high quality (mean base >QV30 after polishing). Long-range haplotype structure, in some cases encompassing more than 4 Mb of extremely divergent homologous sequence with dramatic differences in coding sequence content, is resolved using a combination of the FALCON-Unzip assembler, genome annotation, coverage depth, and pairwise nucleotide alignments.

June 1, 2021  |  

Applying Sequel to Genomic Datasets

De novo assembly is a large part of JGI’s analysis portfolio. Repetitive DNA sequences are abundant in a wide range of organisms we sequence and pose a significant technical challenge for assembly. We are interested in long read technologies capable of spanning genomic repeats to produce better assemblies. We currently have three RS II and two Sequel PacBio machines. RS II machines are primarily used for fungal and microbial genome assembly as well as synthetic biology validation. Between microbes and fungi we produce hundreds of PacBio libraries a year and for throughput reasons the vast majority of these are >10 kb AMPure libraries. Throughput for RS II is about 1 Gb per SMRT Cell. This is ideal for microbial sized genomes but can be costly and labor intensive for larger projects which require multiple cells. JGI was an early access site for Sequel and began testing with real samples in January 2016. During that time we’ve had the opportunity to sequence microbes, fungi, metagenomes, and plants. Here we present our experience over the last 18 months using the Sequel platform and provide comparisons with RS II results.

June 1, 2021  |  

Best practices for whole genome sequencing using the Sequel System

Plant and animal whole genome sequencing has proven to be challenging, particularly due to genome size, high density of repetitive elements and heterozygosity. The Sequel System delivers long reads, high consensus accuracy and uniform coverage, enabling more complete, accurate, and contiguous assemblies of these large complex genomes. The latest Sequel chemistry increases yield up to 8 Gb per SMRT Cell for long insert libraries >20 kb and up to 10 Gb per SMRT Cell for libraries >40 kb. In addition, the recently released SMRTbell Express Template Prep Kit reduces the time (~3 hours) and DNA input (~3 µg), making the workflow easy to use for multi- SMRT Cell projects. Here, we recommend the best practices for whole genome sequencing and de novo assembly of complex plant and animal genomes. Guidelines for constructing large-insert SMRTbell libraries (>30 kb) to generate optimal read lengths and yields using the latest Sequel chemistry are presented. We also describe ways to maximize library yield per preparation from as littles as 3 µg of sheared genomic DNA. The combination of these advances makes plant and animal whole genome sequencing a practical application of the Sequel System.

June 1, 2021  |  

Every species can be a model: Reference-quality PacBio genomes from single insects

A high-quality reference genome is an essential resource for primary and applied research across the tree of life. Genome projects for small-bodied, non-model organisms such as insects face several unique challenges including limited DNA input quantities, high heterozygosity, and difficulty of culturing or inbreeding in the lab. Recent progress in PacBio library preparation protocols, sequencing throughput, and read accuracy address these challenges. We present several case studies including the Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus), and Anopheles malaria mosquitoes that highlight the benefits of sequencing single individuals for de novo genome assembly projects, and the ease at which these projects can be conducted by individual research labs. Sampled individuals may originate from lab colonies of interest to the research community or be sourced from the wild to better capture natural variation in a focal population. Where genomic DNA quantities are limited, the PacBio Low DNA Input Protocol requires ~100 ng of input DNA. Low DNA input samples with 500 Mb genome size or less can be multiplexed on a single SMRT Cell 8M on the Sequel II System. For samples with more abundant DNA quantity, size-selected libraries may be constructed to maximize sequencing yield. Both low DNA input and size-selected libraries can be used to generate HiFi reads, whose quality is Q20 or above (1% error or less) and lengths range from 10 – 25 kb. With HiFi reads, de novo assembly computation is greatly simplified relative to long read methods due to smaller sequence file sizes and more rapid analysis, resulting in highly accurate, contiguous, complete, and haplotype-resolved assemblies.

June 1, 2021  |  

A high-quality PacBio insect genome from 5 ng of input DNA

High-quality insect genomes are essential resources to understand insect biology and to combat them as disease vectors and agricultural pests. It is desirable to sequence a single individual for a reference genome to avoid complications from multiple alleles during de novo assembly. However, the small body size of many insects poses a challenge for the use of long-read sequencing technologies which often have high DNA-input requirements. The previously described PacBio Low DNA Input Protocol starts with ~100 ng of DNA and allows for high-quality assemblies of single mosquitoes among others and represents a significant step in reducing such requirements. Here, we describe a new library protocol with a further 20-fold reduction in the DNA input quantity. Starting with just 5 ng of high molecular weight DNA, we describe the successful sequencing and de novo genome assembly of a single male sandfly (Phlebotomus papatasi, the main vector of the Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis), using HiFi data generated on the PacBio Sequel II System and assembled with FALCON. The assembly shows a high degree of completeness (>97% of BUSCO genes are complete), contiguity (contig N50 of 1 Mb), and sequence accuracy (>98% of BUSCO genes without frameshift errors). This workflow has general utility for small-bodied insects and other plant and animal species for both focused research studies or in conjunction with large-scale genome projects.

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