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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome sequence of the heterozygous clinical isolate Candida krusei 81-B-5.

Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology. Gene annotation and comparative analysis revealed a unique profile of transporters that could play a role in drug resistance or adaptation to different…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft nuclear genome sequence of the liquid hydrocarbon–accumulating green microalga Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa).

Botryococcus braunii has long been known as a prodigious producer of liquid hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into combustion engine fuels. This draft genome for the B race of B. braunii will allow researchers to unravel important hydrocarbon biosynthetic pathways and identify possible regulatory networks controlling this unusual metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Browne et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome de novo sequencing of wood rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris (ATCC62978) with both a cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzyme system.

Fomitopsis palustris is a model brown rot fungus causing destructive wood decay based on the cellulase system. Endoglucanase secreted by F. palustris hydrolyzes cellulose in both the crystalline and amorphous form. In this study, whole-genome sequencing was conducted to identify genes related to F. palustris cellulose degradation and their functions. We determined the 43-Mb complete draft genome of F. palustris (ATCC 62978), comprising 14,592 predicted gene models. Gene annotation provided crucial information about the location and function of protein-encoding genes. Three types of endoglucanases were expressed: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase, endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase, and endoglucanase. In addition, various ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase, aromatic compound…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The dynamic three-dimensional organization of the diploid yeast genome.

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a long-standing model for the three-dimensional organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, even in this well-studied model, it is unclear how homolog pairing in diploids or environmental conditions influence overall genome organization. Here, we performed high-throughput chromosome conformation capture on diverged Saccharomyces hybrid diploids to obtain the first global view of chromosome conformation in diploid yeasts. After controlling for the Rabl-like orientation using a polymer model, we observe significant homolog proximity that increases in saturated culture conditions. Surprisingly, we observe a localized increase in homologous interactions between the HAS1-TDA1 alleles specifically under galactose induction and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics-enabled analysis of the emergent disease cotton bacterial blight.

Cotton bacterial blight (CBB), an important disease of (Gossypium hirsutum) in the early 20th century, had been controlled by resistant germplasm for over half a century. Recently, CBB re-emerged as an agronomic problem in the United States. Here, we report analysis of cotton variety planting statistics that indicate a steady increase in the percentage of susceptible cotton varieties grown each year since 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the current outbreak cluster with race 18 Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm) strains. Illumina based draft genomes were generated for thirteen Xcm isolates and analyzed along with 4 previously published Xcm…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of an endophytic fungus, Gaeumannomyces sp. strain JS-464, isolated from a reed plant, Phragmites communis.

An endophytic fungus, Gaeumannomyces sp. strain JS-464, is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites which showed significant nitric oxide reduction activity. The draft genome assembly has a size of 53,151,282 bp, with a G+C content of 53.11% consisting of 80 scaffolds with an N50 of 7.46 Mbp. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome de novo sequencing of the lignin-degrading wood rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 20696).

Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 20696) has a catabolic ability to degrade lignin. Here, we report whole-genome sequencing used to identify genes related to lignin modification. We determined the 39-Mb draft genome sequence of this fungus, comprising 13,560 predicted gene models. Gene annotation provided crucial information about the location and function of protein-encoding genes. Copyright © 2017 Hong et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Aspergillus persii NIBRFGC000004109, which has antibacterial activity against plant-pathogenic bacteria.

The fungus Aspergillus persii strain NIBRFGC000004109 is capable of producing penicillic acid and showed antibacterial activity against various plant-pathogenic bacteria, including Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of A. persii The assembly comprises 38,414,373 bp, with 12 scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Building a locally diploid genome and transcriptome of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus.

The genome of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus is characterized by highly diverged haplotypes that intersperse its homozygous genome. Here, we describe how a combination of PacBio DNA and Illumina RNA sequencing can be used to resolve this complex genomic landscape locally into the highly diverged haplotypes, and how to map various environmentally controlled transcripts onto individual haplotypes. We assembled PacBio sequence data with the FALCON assembler and created a haplotype resolved annotation of the assembly using annotations of a Sanger sequenced F. cylindrus genome. RNA-seq datasets from six different growth conditions were used to resolve allele-specifc gene expression in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome sequence of Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047, the producer of novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids.

Streptomyces albolongus YIM 101047 produces novel bafilomycins and odoriferous sesquiterpenoids with cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. albolongus YIM 101047, which consists of an 8,027,788bp linear chromosome. Forty-six putative biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites were found. The sesquiterpenoid gene cluster was on the left arm (0.09-0.10Mb), and the bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was on the right arm (7.46-7.64Mb) of the chromosome. Twenty-two putative gene clusters with high or moderate similarity to important antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters were found, including the antitumor agents bafilomycin, epothilone and hedamycin; the antibacterial/antifungal agents clavulanic acid, collismycin…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration.

Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb), with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mechanisms of surface antigenic variation in the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes. These genes formed a subtelomeric gene superfamily, which included five families encoding adhesive glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins and one family encoding…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative and population genomic landscape of Phellinus noxius: A hypervariable fungus causing root rot in trees.

The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomic analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini. Many gene families of lignin-degrading enzymes were identified from these fungi, reflecting their ability as white rot fungi. Comparing against distant fungi highlighted…

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