July 19, 2019  |  

Recently published Streptomyces genome sequences.

Many readers of this journal will need no introduction to the bacterial genus Streptomyces, which includes several hundred species, many of which produce biotechnologically useful secondary metabolites. The last 2 years have seen numerous publications describing Streptomyces genome sequences (Table?1), mostly as short genome announcements restricted to just 500 words and therefore allowing little description and analysis. Our aim in this current manuscript is to survey these recent publications and to dig a little deeper where appropriate. The genus Streptomyces is now one of the most highly sequenced, with 19 finished genomic sequences (Table?2) and a further 125 draft assemblies available in the GenBank database as of 3rd of May 2014; by the time this is published, no doubt there will be more. The reasons given for sequencing this latest crop of Streptomyces include production of industrially important enzymes, degradation of lignin, antibiotic production, rapid growth and halo-tolerance and an endophytic lifestyle (Table?1).


July 19, 2019  |  

Targeted single molecule sequencing methodology for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

One of the most significant issues surrounding next generation sequencing is the cost and the difficulty assembling short read lengths. Targeted capture enrichment of longer fragments using single molecule sequencing (SMS) is expected to improve both sequence assembly and base-call accuracy but, at present, there are very few examples of successful application of these technologic advances in translational research and clinical testing. We developed a targeted single molecule sequencing (T-SMS) panel for genes implicated in ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for infertility.Target enrichment was carried out using droplet-base multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology (RainDance®) designed to yield amplicons averaging 1 kb fragment size from candidate 44 loci (99.8% unique base-pair coverage). The total targeted sequence was 3.18 Mb per sample. SMS was carried out using single molecule, real-time DNA sequencing (SMRT® Pacific Biosciences®), average raw read length?=?1178 nucleotides, 5% of the amplicons >6000 nucleotides). After filtering with circular consensus (CCS) reads, the mean read length was 3200 nucleotides (97% CCS accuracy). Primary data analyses, alignment and filtering utilized the Pacific Biosciences® SMRT portal. Secondary analysis was conducted using the Genome Analysis Toolkit for SNP discovery l and wANNOVAR for functional analysis of variants. Filtered functional variants 18 of 19 (94.7%) were further confirmed using conventional Sanger sequencing. CCS reads were able to accurately detect zygosity. Coverage within GC rich regions (i.e.VEGFR; 72% GC rich) was achieved by capturing long genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments and reading into regions that flank the capture regions. As proof of concept, a non-synonymous LHCGR variant captured in two severe OHSS cases, and verified by conventional sequencing.Combining emulsion PCR-generated 1 kb amplicons and SMRT DNA sequencing permitted greater depth of coverage for T-SMS and facilitated easier sequence assembly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report combining emulsion PCR and T-SMS for long reads using human DNA samples, and NGS panel designed for biomarker discovery in OHSS.


July 7, 2019  |  

Construction of a reference genetic map of Raphanus sativus based on genotyping by whole-genome resequencing.

This manuscript provides a genetic map of Raphanus sativus that has been used as a reference genetic map for an ongoing genome sequencing project. The map was constructed based on genotyping by whole-genome resequencing of mapping parents and F 2 population. Raphanus sativus is an annual vegetable crop species of the Brassicaceae family and is one of the key plants in the seed industry, especially in East Asia. Assessment of the R. sativus genome provides fundamental resources for crop improvement as well as the study of crop genome structure and evolution. With the goal of anchoring genome sequence assemblies of R. sativus cv. WK10039 whose genome has been sequenced onto the chromosomes, we developed a reference genetic map based on genotyping of two parents (maternal WK10039 and paternal WK10024) and 93 individuals of the F2 mapping population by whole-genome resequencing. To develop high-confidence genetic markers, ~83 Gb of parental lines and ~591 Gb of mapping population data were generated as Illumina 100 bp paired-end reads. High stringent sequence analysis of the reads mapped to the 344 Mb of genome sequence scaffolds identified a total of 16,282 SNPs and 150 PCR-based markers. Using a subset of the markers, a high-density genetic map was constructed from the analysis of 2,637 markers spanning 1,538 cM with 1,000 unique framework loci. The genetic markers integrated 295 Mb of genome sequences to the cytogenetically defined chromosome arms. Comparative analysis of the chromosome-anchored sequences with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed that the R. sativus genome has evident triplicated sub-genome blocks and the structure of gene space is highly similar to that of B. rapa. The genetic map developed in this study will serve as fundamental genomic resources for the study of R. sativus.


July 7, 2019  |  

Nonribosomal peptide synthase gene clusters for lipopeptide biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis 916 and their phenotypic functions.

Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides (LPs) have been well studied for their phytopathogen-antagonistic activities. Recently, research has shown that these LPs also contribute to the phenotypic features of Bacillus strains, such as hemolytic activity, swarming motility, biofilm formation, and colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis 916 not only coproduces the three families of well-known LPs, i.e., surfactins, bacillomycin Ls (iturin family), and fengycins, but also produces a new family of LP called locillomycins. The genome of B. subtilis 916 contains four nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, and loc, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of surfactins, bacillomycin Ls, fengycins, and locillomycins, respectively. By studying B. subtilis 916 mutants lacking production of one, two, or three LPs, we attempted to unveil the connections between LPs and phenotypic features. We demonstrated that bacillomycin Ls and fengycins contribute mainly to antifungal activity. Although surfactins have weak antifungal activity in vitro, the strain mutated in srfAA had significantly decreased antifungal activity. This may be due to the impaired productions of fengycins and bacillomycin Ls. We also found that the disruption of any LP gene cluster other than fen resulted in a change in colony morphology. While surfactins and bacillomycin Ls play very important roles in hemolytic activity, swarming motility, and biofilm formation, the fengycins and locillomycins had little influence on these phenotypic features. In conclusion, B. subtilis 916 coproduces four families of LPs which contribute to the phenotypic features of B. subtilis 916 in an intricate way. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Analysis of a draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395 producing bafilomycin antibiotics.

Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, producing bafilomycin antibiotics belonging to plecomacrolide group, was isolated from a soil sample at Mt. Jiri, Korea. The draft genome sequence contains 8.04 Mb with 73.6% G+C content and 7,810 open reading frames. All the genes for aerial mycelium and spore formations were confirmed in this draft genome. In phylogenetic analysis of MurE proteins (UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate:DAP ligase) in a conserved dcw (division of cell wall) locus, MurE proteins of Kitasatospora species were placed in a separate clade between MurEs of Streptomyces species incorporating LL-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and MurEs of Saccharopolyspora erythraea as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligating meso-DAP. From this finding, it was assumed that Kitasatospora MurEs exhibit the substrate specificity for both LL-DAP and meso-DAP. The bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was located in the left subtelomeric region. In 71.3 kb-long gene cluster, 17 genes probably involved in the biosynthesis of bafilomycin derivatives were deduced, including 5 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes comprised of 12 PKS modules.


July 7, 2019  |  

Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-ß-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 ß-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ~30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties.© 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740, a carotenoid-producing bacterium isolated from the Arctic Sea.

Rhodococcus sp. B7740 was isolated from Arctic seawater and selected for its capacity to synthesize carotenoids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus sp. B7740 to provide the genetic basis for a better understanding of its carotenoid-accumulating capabilities, and we describe the major features of the genome. Copyright © 2015 Zhang et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. strain NTK 937, producer of the benzoxazole antibiotic caboxamycin.

Streptomyces sp. strain NTK 937 is the producer of the benzoxazole antibiotic caboxamycin, which has been shown to exert inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines, and inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase. In this genome announcement, we present a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. NTK 937 in which we identified at least 35 putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Copyright © 2014 Olano et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, which produces plecomacrolide against phytopathogenic fungi.

Kitasatospora cheerisanensis KCTC 2395, which produces antifungal metabolites with bafilomycin derivatives, including bafilomycin C1-amide, was isolated from a soil sample at Mt. Jiri, South Korea. Here, we report its draft genome sequence, which contains 8.04 Mb with 73.6% G+C content and 7,810 protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2014 Hwang et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the sugar cane endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a disease-suppressive bacterium with antifungal activity toward the plant pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum.

The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Cellulophaga lytica HI1 using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

We report here the complete genome sequence of Cellulophaga lytica HI1 isolated from a seawater table located at the Kewalo Marine Laboratory (Honolulu, HI). This is the first complete de novo genome assembly of C. lytica HI1 using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, which resulted in a single scaffold of 3.8 Mb. Copyright © 2014 Asahina and Hadfield.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Pantoea agglomerans R190, a producer of antibiotics against phytopathogens and foodborne pathogens.

Pantoea agglomerans R190, isolated from an apple orchard, showed antibacterial activity against various spoilage bacteria, including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. agglomerans R190. This report will raise the value of P. agglomerans as an agent for biocontrol of disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.


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