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Thursday, November 7, 2019

ASHG Virtual Poster: Long range phasing of cardiac disease genes using new long read sequencing technologies

Alex Dainis, a graduate student in Euan Ashley’s lab at Stanford University, presents her ASHG 2015 poster on haplotyping for genes linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using the Iso-Seq method with SMRT Sequencing, she sequenced full transcripts of two genes of interest, generating data on 150 different isoforms. Rare variants, which could not be found with other technologies, were associated with haplotypes.

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Thursday, November 7, 2019

ASHG Virtual Poster: Alternative splicing in FMR1 premutations carriers

In this ASHG 2016 virtual poster, Flora Tassone from UC Davis describes her study of the molecular mechanisms linked to fragile X syndrome and associated disorders, such as FXTAS. She is using SMRT Sequencing to resolve the FMR1 gene in premutation carriers because it’s the only technology that can generate full-length transcripts with the causative CGG repeat expansion. Plus: direct confirmation of predicted isoform configurations.

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Thursday, November 7, 2019

AGBT Virtual Poster: Using the PacBio Iso-Seq method to search for novel colorectal cancer biomarkers

Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions (adenomas) is crucial to reduce mortality rates. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a non-invasive CRC screening test that detects the blood-derived protein hemoglobin. However, FIT sensitivity is suboptimal especially in detection of CRC precursor lesions. As adenoma-to-carcinoma progression is accompanied by alternative splicing, tumor-specific proteins derived from alternatively spliced RNA transcripts might serve as candidate biomarkers for CRC detection.

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Thursday, November 7, 2019

Webinar: Chasing alternative splicing in cancer: Simplified full-length isoform sequencing

Tremendous flexibility is maintained in the human proteome via alternative splicing, and cancer genomes often subvert this flexibility to promote survival. Identification and annotation of cancer-specific mRNA isoforms is critical to understanding how mutations in the genome affect the biology of cancer cells. While microarrays and other NGS-based methods have become useful for studying transcriptomes, these technologies yield short, fragmented transcripts that remain a challenge for accurate, complete reconstruction of splice variants. The Iso-Seq method developed at PacBio offers the only solution for direct sequencing of full-length, single-molecule cDNA sequences needed to discover biomarkers for early detection and cancer stratification,…

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Thursday, November 7, 2019

Webinar: Survey of transcriptome diversity using Iso-Seq analysis

The Iso-Seq method enables the sequencing of transcript isoforms from the 5’ end to their poly-A tails, eliminating the need for transcript reconstruction and inference. This webinar provides a comprehensive guide to Iso-Seq method data analysis, bioinformatics, and review key applications.

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Thursday, November 7, 2019

Webinar: Discover full-length RNA sequencing – No assembly required

In this webinar we present Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and the Iso-Seq method, which allow you to generate full-length cDNA sequences — no assembly required — to characterize transcript isoforms within targeted genes or across an entire transcriptome. The presenters share how the Iso-Seq method: (1) Provides high quality, full-length transcript sequences of up to 15 kb; (2) Allows for one-day library prep on a single SMRT Cell 8M to comprehensively characterize a whole transcriptome; (3) Facilitates discovery of alternative splicing events, fusion gene detection, and allelic specific isoform detection; and (4) Enables discovery of potential cancer-specific isoforms in…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Genome-wide Transcript Structure Resolution Reveals Abundant Alternate Isoform Usage from Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68.

The gammaherpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, MuHV-4, ?HV68), are etiologic agents of a wide range of lymphomas and non-hematological malignancies. These viruses possess large and highly dense dsDNA genomes that feature >80 bidirectionally positioned open reading frames (ORFs). The abundance of overlapping transcripts and extensive splicing throughout these genomes have until now prohibited high throughput-based resolution of transcript structures. Here, we integrate the capabilities of long-read sequencing with the accuracy of short-read platforms to globally resolve MHV68 transcript structures using the transcript resolution through integration of multi-platform data (TRIMD) pipeline. This…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Insights into transcriptional characteristics and homoeolog expression bias of embryo and de-embryonated kernels in developing grain through RNA-Seq and Iso-Seq.

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid, and the transcriptional characteristics of the wheat embryo and endosperm during grain development remain unclear. To analyze the transcriptome, we performed isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) for wheat grain and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) for the embryo and de-embryonated kernels. The differential regulation between the embryo and de-embryonated kernels was found to be greater than the difference between the two time points for each tissue. Exactly 2264 and 4790 tissue-specific genes were found at 14 days post-anthesis (DPA), while 5166 and 3784 genes were found at 25 DPA in the embryo and de-embryonated kernels, respectively. Genes expressed…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Genome-wide profiling of the alternative splicing provides insights into development in Plutella xylostella.

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. While the species has become a model for genomics, post-transcriptional mechanisms associated with development and sex determination have not been comprehensively studied and the lack of complete structure of mRNA transcripts limits further research.Here, we combined the methods of single-molecule long-read sequencing technology (IsoSeq) and RNA-seq to re-annotate the published DBM genome and present the genome-wide identification of alternative splicing (AS) associated with development and sex determination of DBM. In total, we identified ~?13,900 genes (~?77%) annotated in the DBM genome (version-2), resulting in the…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Alternative splicing profile and sex-preferential gene expression in the female and male Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Programmable mutually exclusive alternative splicing for generating RNA and protein diversity.

Alternative splicing performs a central role in expanding genomic coding capacity and proteomic diversity. However, programming of splicing patterns in engineered biological systems remains underused. Synthetic approaches thus far have predominantly focused on controlling expression of a single protein through alternative splicing. Here, we describe a modular and extensible platform for regulating four programmable exons that undergo a mutually exclusive alternative splicing event to generate multiple functionally-distinct proteins. We present an intron framework that enforces the mutual exclusivity of two internal exons and demonstrate a graded series of consensus sequence elements of varying strengths that set the ratio of two…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

5’UTR-mediated regulation of Ataxin-1 expression.

Expression of mutant Ataxin-1 with an abnormally expanded polyglutamine domain is necessary for the onset and progression of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). Understanding how Ataxin-1 expression is regulated in the human brain could inspire novel molecular therapies for this fatal, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have shown that the ATXN1 3’UTR plays a key role in regulating the Ataxin-1 cellular pool via diverse post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here we show that elements within the ATXN1 5’UTR also participate in the regulation of Ataxin-1 expression. PCR and PacBio sequencing analysis of cDNA obtained from control and SCA1 human brain samples revealed…

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Wednesday, October 23, 2019

TIN2 Functions with TPP1/POT1 To Stimulate Telomerase Processivity.

TIN2 is an important regulator of telomere length, and mutations in TINF2, the gene encoding TIN2, cause short-telomere syndromes. While the genetics underscore the importance of TIN2, the mechanism through which TIN2 regulates telomere length remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of human TIN2 on telomerase activity. We identified a new isoform in human cells, TIN2M, that is expressed at levels similar to those of previously studied TIN2 isoforms. All three TIN2 isoforms localized to and maintained telomere integrity in vivo, and localization was not disrupted by telomere syndrome mutations. Using direct telomerase activity assays, we discovered that TIN2…

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Monday, October 21, 2019

Isoform sequencing: Unveiling the complex landscape of the eukaryotic transcriptome on the PacBio RS II.

Alternative splicing of RNA is an important mechanism that increases protein diversity and is pervasive in the most complex biological functions. While advances in RNA sequencing methods have accelerated our understanding of the transcriptome, isoform discovery remains computationally challenging due to short read lengths. Here, we describe the Isoform Sequencing (Iso-Seq) method using long reads generated by the PacBio RS II. We sequenced rat heart and lung RNA using the Clontech® SMARTer® cDNA preparation kit followed by size selection using agarose gel. Additionally, we tested the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science for efficiently extracting longer transcripts = 3 kb. Post-sequencing,…

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