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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomes and transcriptomes of duckweeds.

Duckweeds (Lemnaceae family) are the smallest flowering plants that adapt to the aquatic environment. They are regarded as the promising sustainable feedstock with the characteristics of high starch storage, fast propagation, and global distribution. The duckweed genome size varies 13-fold ranging from 150 Mb in Spirodela polyrhiza to 1,881 Mb in Wolffia arrhiza. With the development of sequencing technology and bioinformatics, five duckweed genomes from Spirodela and Lemna genera are sequenced and assembled. The genome annotations discover that they share similar protein orthologs, whereas the repeat contents could mainly explain the genome size difference. The gene families responsible for cell…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The recombination landscape of Drosophila virilis is robust to transposon activation in hybrid dysgenesis

DNA damage in the germline is a double-edged sword. Induced double-strand breaks establish the foundation for meiotic recombination and proper chromosome segregation but can also pose a significant challenge for genome stability. Within the germline, transposable elements are powerful agents of double-strand break formation. How different types of DNA damage are resolved within the germline is poorly understood. For example, little is known about the relationship between the frequency of double-stranded breaks, both endogenous and exogenous, and the decision to repair DNA through one of the many pathways, including crossing over and gene conversion. Here we use the Drosophila virilis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Derby, associated with the pork sector in France.

In the European Union, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Derby is the most abundant serotype isolated from pork. Recent studies have shown that this serotype is polyphyletic. However, one main genomic lineage, characterized by sequence type 40 (ST40), the presence of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 23, and showing resistance to streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline (STR-SSS- TET), is pork associated. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of a strain from this lineage isolated in France.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

New variant of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium associated with invasive disease in immunocompromised patients in Vietnam.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is among the leading etiologic agents of bacterial enterocolitis globally and a well-characterized cause of invasive disease (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, S Typhimurium is poorly defined in Southeast Asia, a known hot spot for zoonotic disease with a recently described burden of iNTS disease. Here, we aimed to add insight into the epidemiology and potential impact of zoonotic transfer and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S Typhimurium associated with iNTS and enterocolitis in Vietnam. We performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction on 85 human (enterocolitis, carriage, and iNTS) and 113 animal S Typhimurium isolates…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic features of the Helicobacter pylori strain PMSS1 and its virulence attributes as deduced from its in vivo colonisation patterns.

The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori occurs in two basic variants, either exhibiting a functional cagPAI-encoded type-4-secretion-system (T4SS) or not. Only a few cagPAI-positive strains have been successfully adapted for long-term infection of mice, including the pre-mouse Sydney strain 1 (PMSS1). Here we confirm that PMSS1 induces gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration in mice, progressing to intestinal metaplasia. Complete genome analysis of PMSS1 revealed 1,423 coding sequences, encompassing the cagPAI gene cluster and, unusually, the location of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) approximately 15 kb downstream of the island. PMSS1 harbours three genetically exchangeable loci that are occupied by the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic structure of four plasmids found in Acinetobacter baumannii isolate D36 belonging to lineage 2 of global clone 1.

Four plasmids ranging in size from 4.7 to 44.7 kb found in the extensively antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate D36 that belongs to lineage 2 of global clone 1 were examined. D36 includes two cryptic plasmids and two carrying antibiotic resistance genes. The smallest plasmid pD36-1 (4.7 kb) carries no resistance genes but includes mobA and mobC mobilisation genes related to those found in pRAY* (pD36-2, 6,078 bp) that also carries the aadB gentamicin, kanamycin and tobramycin resistance gene cassette. These two plasmids do not encode a Rep protein. Plasmid pRAY* was found to be mobilised at high frequency by…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis strain 109.

Infection with Mycobacterium avium is a significant cause of morbidity and its treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics for more than 12 months. In the current work, we provide the genome sequence, gene annotations, gene ontology annotations, and protein homology data for M. avium strain 109 (MAC109), which has been used extensively in preclinical studies. The de novo assembled genome consists of a circular chromosome of length 5,188,883?bp and two circular plasmids of sizes 147,100?bp and 16,516?bp. We have named the plasmids pMAC109a and pMAC109b, respectively. Based on its genome, we confirm that MAC109 should be classified as Mycobacterium…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of WM99c, an antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 (GC2) strain representing an Australian GC2 lineage.

The extensively antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate WM99c recovered in Sydney, Australia, in 1999 is an early representative of a distinct lineage of global clone 2 (GC2) seen on the east coast of Australia. We present the complete 4.121-Mbp genome sequence (chromosome plus 2 plasmids), generated via long-read sequencing (PacBio).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequencing of an NDM-1- and OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter towneri isolate from hospital sewage in Sichuan Province, China.

Acinetobacter spp. isolates carrying the blaNDM-1 gene are frequently reported. However, most reported blaNDM-1 genes are carried by clinical strains. Here we report a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter towneri isolate from hospital sewage in China co-harbouring blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-58 in the genome.Whole-genome sequencing was performed using a single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform with a Pacific Biosciences RS II Sequencer and MiSeq system. Reads were de novo assembled using Celera Assembler v.8.0. Genome annotation was performed using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP), and the genome sequence was analysed by bioinformatics methods.The 2963729-bp genome with a G+C content of 41.30% displayed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

iMGEins: detecting novel mobile genetic elements inserted in individual genomes.

Recent advances in sequencing technology have allowed us to investigate personal genomes to find structural variations, which have been studied extensively to identify their association with the physiology of diseases such as cancer. In particular, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are one of the major constituents of the human genomes, and cause genome instability by insertion, mutation, and rearrangement.We have developed a new program, iMGEins, to identify such novel MGEs by using sequencing reads of individual genomes, and to explore the breakpoints with the supporting reads and MGEs detected. iMGEins is the first MGE detection program that integrates three algorithmic components:…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 isolated from healthy Korean human feces

The genus of Olsenella has been isolated from vertebrate animal mouth, rumen, and feces. Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 was isolated from fecal samples obtained from a healthy Korean. The whole-genome sequence of Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 was analyzed using the PacBio Sequel platform. The genome comprises a 2,108,034 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 65.50%, 1,838 total genes, 13 rRNA genes, and 52 tRNA genes. Also, we found that strain KGMB 04489 had some genes for hydrolysis enzymes, and antibiotic biosynthesis and resistance in its genome based on the result of genome analysis.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Bridging gaps in transposable element research with single-molecule and single-cell technologies

More than half of the genomic landscape in humans and many other organisms is composed of repetitive DNA, which mostly derives from transposable elements (TEs) and viruses. Recent technological advances permit improved assessment of the repetitive content across genomes and newly developed molecular assays have revealed important roles of TEs and viruses in host genome evolution and organization. To update on our current understanding of TE biology and to promote new interdisciplinary strategies for the TE research community, leading experts gathered for the 2nd Uppsala Transposon Symposium on October 4–5, 2018 in Uppsala, Sweden. Using cutting-edge single-molecule and single-cell approaches,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hardwood tree genomics: Unlocking woody plant biology.

Woody perennial angiosperms (i.e., hardwood trees) are polyphyletic in origin and occur in most angiosperm orders. Despite their independent origins, hardwoods have shared physiological, anatomical, and life history traits distinct from their herbaceous relatives. New high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have provided access to numerous woody plant genomes beyond the early reference genomes of Populus and Eucalyptus, references that now include willow and oak, with pecan and chestnut soon to follow. Genomic studies within these diverse and undomesticated species have successfully linked genes to ecological, physiological, and developmental traits directly. Moreover, comparative genomic approaches are providing insights into speciation events while…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Draft Genome of the MD-2 Pineapple

The main challenge in assembling plant genome is its ploidy level, repeats content, and polymorphism. The second-generation sequencing delivered the throughput and the accuracy that is crucial to whole-genome sequencing but insufficient and remained challenging for some plant species. It is known that genomes produced by next-gen- eration sequencing produced small contigs that would inflate the number of annotated genes (Varshney et al. 2011) and missed on the transposable elements that are abun- dant in plant genome due to their repetitive nature (Michael and Jackson 2013).

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