Functional genomics reveals extensive diversity in Staphylococcus epidermidis restriction modification systems compared to Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant opportunistic pathogen of humans. Molecular studies in this species have been hampered by the presence of restriction-modification (RM) systems that limit introduction of foreign DNA. Here we establish the complete genomes and methylomes for seven clinically significant, genetically diverse S. epidermidis isolates and perform the first systematic genomic analyses of the type I RM systems within both S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our analyses revealed marked differences in the gene arrangement, chromosomal location and movement of type I RM systems between the two species. Unlike S. aureus, S. epidermidis type I RM systems demonstrate extensive diversity even within a single genetic lineage. This is contrary to current assumptions and has important implications for approaching the genetic manipulation of S. epidermidis. Using Escherichia coli plasmid artificial modification (PAM) to express S. epidermidis hsdMS, we readily overcame restriction barriers in S. epidermidis, and achieved transformation efficiencies equivalent to those of modification deficient mutants. With these functional experiments we demonstrate how genomic data can be used to predict both the functionality of type I RM systems and the potential for a strain to be transformation proficient. We outline an efficient approach for the genetic manipulation of S. epidermidis from diverse genetic backgrounds, including those that have hitherto been intractable. Additionally, we identified S. epidermidis BPH0736, a naturally restriction defective, clinically significant, multidrug-resistant ST2 isolate as an ideal candidate for molecular studies.