April 21, 2020  |  

Whole genome sequence and de novo assembly revealed genomic architecture of Indian Mithun (Bos frontalis).

Mithun (Bos frontalis), also called gayal, is an endangered bovine species, under the tribe bovini with 2n?=?58 XX chromosome complements and reared under the tropical rain forests region of India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan and Bangladesh. However, the origin of this species is still disputed and information on its genomic architecture is scanty so far. We trust that availability of its whole genome sequence data and assembly will greatly solve this problem and help to generate many information including phylogenetic status of mithun. Recently, the first genome assembly of gayal, mithun of Chinese origin, was published. However, an improved reference genome assembly would still benefit in understanding genetic variation in mithun populations reared under diverse geographical locations and for building a superior consensus assembly. We, therefore, performed deep sequencing of the genome of an adult female mithun from India, assembled and annotated its genome and performed extensive bioinformatic analyses to produce a superior de novo genome assembly of mithun.We generated ˜300 Gigabyte (Gb) raw reads from whole-genome deep sequencing platforms and assembled the sequence data using a hybrid assembly strategy to create a high quality de novo assembly of mithun with 96% recovered as per BUSCO analysis. The final genome assembly has a total length of 3.0 Gb, contains 5,015 scaffolds with an N50 value of 1?Mb. Repeat sequences constitute around 43.66% of the assembly. The genomic alignments between mithun to cattle showed that their genomes, as expected, are highly conserved. Gene annotation identified 28,044 protein-coding genes presented in mithun genome. The gene orthologous groups of mithun showed a high degree of similarity in comparison with other species, while fewer mithun specific coding sequences were found compared to those in cattle.Here we presented the first de novo draft genome assembly of Indian mithun having better coverage, less fragmented, better annotated, and constitutes a reasonably complete assembly compared to the previously published gayal genome. This comprehensive assembly unravelled the genomic architecture of mithun to a great extent and will provide a reference genome assembly to research community to elucidate the evolutionary history of mithun across its distinct geographical locations.

April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic characterisation of the new Dickeya fangzhongdai species regrouping plant pathogens and environmental isolates.

The Dickeya genus is part of the Pectobacteriaceae family that is included in the newly described enterobacterales order. It comprises a group of aggressive soft rot pathogens with wide geographic distribution and host range. Among them, the new Dickeya fangzhongdai species groups causative agents of maceration-associated diseases that impact a wide variety of crops and ornamentals. It affects mainly monocot plants, but D. fangzhongdai strains have also been isolated from pear trees and water sources. Here, we analysed which genetic novelty exists in this new species, what are the D. fangzhongdai-specific traits and what is the intra-specific diversity.The genomes of eight D. fangzhongdai strains isolated from diverse environments were compared to 31 genomes of strains belonging to other Dickeya species. The D. fangzhongdai core genome regroups approximately 3500 common genes, including most genes that encode virulence factors and regulators characterised in the D. dadantii 3937 model strain. Only 38 genes are present in D. fangzhongdai and absent in all other Dickeyas. One of them encodes a pectate lyase of the PL10 family of polysaccharide lyases that is found only in a few bacteria from the plant environment, soil or human gut. Other D. fangzhongdai-specific genes with a known or predicted function are involved in regulation or metabolism. The intra-species diversity analysis revealed that seven of the studied D. fangzhongdai strains were grouped into two distinct clades. Each clade possesses a pool of 100-150 genes that are shared by the clade members, but absent from the other D. fangzhongdai strains and several of these genes are clustered into genomic regions. At the strain level, diversity resides mainly in the arsenal of T5SS- and T6SS-related toxin-antitoxin systems and in secondary metabolite biogenesis pathways.This study identified the genome-specific traits of the new D. fangzhongdai species and highlighted the intra-species diversity of this species. This diversity encompasses secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways and toxins or the repertoire of genes of extrachromosomal origin. We however didn’t find any relationship between gene content and phenotypic differences or sharing of environmental habitats.

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