June 1, 2021  |  

A genome assembly of the domestic goat from 70x coverage of single molecule, real-time sequence.

Goat is an important source of milk, meat, and fiber, especially in developing countries. An advantage of goats as livestock is the low maintenance requirements and high adaptability compared to other milk producers. The global population of domestic goats exceeds 800 million. In Africa, goat production is characterized by low productivity levels, and attempts to introduce more productive breeds have met with poor success due in part to nutritional constraints. It has been suggested that incorporation of selective breeding within the herds adapted for survival could represent one approach to improving food security across Africa. A recently produced genome assembly of a Chinese Yunnan breed goat, based on 192 Gb of short reads across a range of insert sizes from 180 bp to 20 kb, reported a contig N50 of 18.7 kb. The scaffold N50 was improved from 2.2 Mb to 3.1 Mb by addition of fosmid end sequence, with an estimated 140 million Ns in gaps and 91% coverage. The assembly has proven somewhat problematic for pursuing genome-wide association analysis with SNP arrays, apparently due in part to errors in ordering of markers using the draft genome. In order to provide a higher quality assembly, we sequenced a highly inbred, San Clemente breed goat genome using 458 SMRT cells on the Pacific Biosciences platform. These cells generated 193.5 Gbases of sequence after processing into subreads, with mean 5110 bases and max subread length of 40.5 kb. This sequence data generated an assembly using the recently reported MHAP error correction approach and Celera Assembler v8.2. The contig N50 was 2.5 Mb, with the largest contig spanning 19.5 Mb. Additional characteristics of the assembly will be presented.

April 21, 2020  |  

Genome-wide selection footprints and deleterious variations in young Asian allotetraploid rapeseed.

Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38) is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide. However, little is known about the population evolution of this species, the genomic difference between its major genetic groups, such as European and Asian rapeseed, and the impacts of historical large-scale introgression events on this young tetraploid. In this study, we reported the de novo assembly of the genome sequences of an Asian rapeseed (B. napus), Ningyou 7, and its four progenitors and compared these genomes with other available genomic data from diverse European and Asian cultivars. Our results showed that Asian rapeseed originally derived from European rapeseed but subsequently significantly diverged, with rapid genome differentiation after hybridization and intensive local selective breeding. The first historical introgression of B. rapa dramatically broadened the allelic pool but decreased the deleterious variations of Asian rapeseed. The second historical introgression of the double-low traits of European rapeseed (canola) has reshaped Asian rapeseed into two groups (double-low and double-high), accompanied by an increase in genetic load in the double-low group. This study demonstrates distinctive genomic footprints and deleterious SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) variants for local adaptation by recent intra- and interspecies introgression events and provides novel insights for understanding the rapid genome evolution of a young allopolyploid crop. © 2019 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

April 21, 2020  |  

Do the toll-like receptors and complement systems play equally important roles in freshwater adapted Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma)?

Unlike the normal anadromous lifestyle, Chinese native Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) is locked in land and lives in fresh water lifetime. To explore the effect of freshwater adaption on its immune system, we constructed a pooled cDNA library of hepatopancreas and spleen of Chinese freshwater Dolly Varden char (S. malma). A total of 27,829 unigenes were generated from 31,233 high-quality transcripts and 17,670 complete open reading frames (ORF) were identified. Totally 25,809 unigenes were successfully annotated and it classified more native than adaptive immunity-associated genes, and more genes involved in toll-like receptor signal pathway than those in complement and coagulation cascades (51 vs 3), implying the relative more important role of toll-like receptors than the complement system under bacterial injection for the freshwater Dolly Varden char. These huge different numbers of TLR and complement system identified in freshwater Dolly Varden char probably caused by distinct evolution pressure patterns between fish TLR and complement system, representative by TLR3 and TLR5 as well as C4 and C6, respectively, which were under purifying and positively selecting pressure, respectively. Further seawater adaptation experiment and the comparison study with our library will no doubt be helpful to elucidate the effect of freshwater adaption of Chinese native Dolly Varden char on its immune system.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

April 21, 2020  |  

The sequencing and de novo assembly of the Larimichthys crocea genome using PacBio and Hi-C technologies.

Larimichthys crocea is an endemic marine fish in East Asia that belongs to Sciaenidae in Perciformes. L. crocea has now been recognized as an “iconic” marine fish species in China because not only is it a popular food fish in China, it is a representative victim of overfishing and still provides high value fish products supported by the modern large-scale mariculture industry. Here, we report a chromosome-level reference genome of L. crocea generated by employing the PacBio single molecule sequencing technique (SMRT) and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies. The genome sequences were assembled into 1,591 contigs with a total length of 723.86?Mb and a contig N50 length of 2.83?Mb. After chromosome-level scaffolding, 24 scaffolds were constructed with a total length of 668.67?Mb (92.48% of the total length). Genome annotation identified 23,657 protein-coding genes and 7262 ncRNAs. This highly accurate, chromosome-level reference genome of L. crocea provides an essential genome resource to support the development of genome-scale selective breeding and restocking strategies of L. crocea.

April 21, 2020  |  

The sequence and de novo assembly of Takifugu bimaculatus genome using PacBio and Hi-C technologies.

Takifugu bimaculatus is a native teleost species of the southeast coast of China where it has been cultivated as an important edible fish in the last decade. Genetic breeding programs, which have been recently initiated for improving the aquaculture performance of T. bimaculatus, urgently require a high-quality reference genome to facilitate genome selection and related genetic studies. To address this need, we produced a chromosome-level reference genome of T. bimaculatus using the PacBio single molecule sequencing technique (SMRT) and High-through chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies. The genome was assembled into 2,193 contigs with a total length of 404.21?Mb and a contig N50 length of 1.31?Mb. After chromosome-level scaffolding, 22 chromosomes with a total length of 371.68?Mb were constructed. Moreover, a total of 21,117 protein-coding genes and 3,471 ncRNAs were annotated in the reference genome. The highly accurate, chromosome-level reference genome of T. bimaculatus provides an essential genome resource for not only the genome-scale selective breeding of T. bimaculatus but also the exploration of the evolutionary basis of the speciation and local adaptation of the Takifugu genus.

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