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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, KAB03 belonging to ST451 from Korea.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains have emerged rapidly worldwide. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of XDR A. baumannii strains show regional differences; therefore, it is necessary to analyze both genomic and proteomic characteristics of emerging XDR A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in Korea to elucidate their multidrug resistance. Here, we isolated new sequence type of XDR A. baumannii clinical strain (KAB03) from Korean hospitals and performed comprehensive genome analyses. The strain belongs to new sequence type, ST451. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis with other types of A. baumannii strains revealed that KAB03 has unique SNP pattern in the regions of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933, a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability

Enterococci are commensal bacteria in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract which play an important role in the production of various fermented foods. Thus, certain enterococcal strains are commonly used as probiotics to confer health benefits to human and animals. Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933 is a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability, which was isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. To better understand the genetic basis of the probiotic properties of this strain, the whole-genome sequence was performed using the PacBio RSII platform.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The draft genomes of Elizabethkingia anophelis of equine origin are genetically similar to three isolates from human clinical specimens.

We report the isolation and characterization of two Elizabethkingia anophelis strains (OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2) isolated from sources associated with horses in Oklahoma. Both strains appeared susceptible to fluoroquinolones and demonstrated high MICs to all cell wall active antimicrobials including vancomycin, along with aminoglycosides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Typical of the Elizabethkingia, both draft genomes contained multiple copies of ß-lactamase genes as well as genes predicted to function in antimicrobial efflux. Phylogenetic analysis of the draft genomes revealed that OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2 differ by only 6 SNPs and are in a clade with 3 strains of Elizabethkingia anophelis that were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of an XDR and carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in Taiwan.

Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae causes high mortality owing to the limited therapeutic options available. Here, we investigated an emergent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain with hypervirulence found among KPC-2-producing strains in Taiwan.KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were collected consecutively from clinical specimens at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Capsular types and the presence of rmpA/rmpA2 were analysed, and PFGE and MLST performed using these strains. The strain positive for rmpA/rmpA2 was tested in an in vivo mouse lethality study to verify its virulence and subjected to WGS to delineate its genomic features.A total of 62 KPC-2-producing K.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Towards map-based cloning of FB_Mfu10: identification of a receptor-like kinase candidate gene underlying the Malus fusca fire blight resistance locus on linkage group 10.

Breeding for resistance against the destructive fire blight disease of apples is the most sustainable strategy to control the menace of this disease, and has become increasingly important in European apple breeding programs. Since most cultivars are susceptible, wild accessions have been explored for resistance with quantitative trait loci detected in a few wild species. Fire blight resistance of Malus fusca was described following phenotypic evaluations with a C-type strain of Erwinia amylovora, Ea222_JKI, and the detection of a major QTL on chromosome 10 (Mfu10) of this crabapple. The stability of the resistance of M. fusca and Mfu10 has been…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Detection and characterization of a clinical Escherichia coli ST3204 strain coproducing NDM-16 and MCR-1.

A plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been reported worldwide and has caused concern regarding a major therapeutic challenge. Alarmingly, mcr-1 has spread into clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, resulting in extensively drug-resistant and even pan drug-resistant isolates that can cause untreatable infections. In this study, we report isolation of an extensively drug-resistant Escherichia coli strain EC1188 that coproduces NDM-16 and MCR-1 from a urine sample taken from a patient with craniocerebral injury.E. coli strain EC1188 was identified and subjected to genotyping, susceptibility testing and conjugation experiments. The genetic locations of blaNDM-16 and mcr-1 were established with southern blot hybridization. The…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of multi-drug resistant, MCR-1 and ESBL-coproducing ST117 Escherichia coli from diseased chickens in Northeast China

An endemic multi-drug resistant ST117 E. coli isolate coproducing MCR-1 and 3 ESBL loci was, for the first time, detected from diseased chicken, Liaoning Province, in Northeast China, from 2011 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 5 unique plasmids, namely pHXH-1, pHXH-2, pHXH-3, pHXH-4 and pHXH-5). Among them, pHXH1 and pHXH4 encode ESBL, and pHXH-5 mediates MCR-1 colistin resistance. The results indicate that the potentially-national dissemination of MCR-1-positive pathogens with pan-drug resistance proceeds via food chains.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Variant O89 O-antigen of E. coli is associated with group 1 capsule loci and multidrug resistance.

Bacterial surface polysaccharides play significant roles in fitness and virulence. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, major surface polysaccharides are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsule, representing O- and K-antigens, respectively. There are multiple combinations of O:K types, many of which are well-characterized and can be related to ecotype or pathotype. In this investigation, we have identified a novel O:K permutation resulting through a process of major genome reorganization in a clade of E. coli. A multidrug-resistant, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain – E. coli 26561 – represented a prototype of strains combining a locus variant of O89 and group 1 capsular…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ma orthologous genes in Prunus spp. shed light on a noteworthy NBS-LRR cluster conferring differential resistance to root-knot nematodes.

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are considerable polyphagous pests that severely challenge plants worldwide and especially perennials. The specific genetic resistance of plants mainly relies on the NBS-LRR genes that are pivotal factors for pathogens control. In Prunus spp., the Ma plum and RMja almond genes possess different spectra for resistance to RKNs. While previous works based on the Ma gene allowed to clone it and to decipher its peculiar TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) structure, we only knew that the RMja gene mapped on the same chromosome as Ma. We carried out a high-resolution mapping using an almond segregating F2 progeny of 1448 seedlings…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A comparison of genotypic and phenotypic methods for analyzing the susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in Edwardsiella piscicida.

In a study of 39 isolates of Edwardsiella piscicida made from Korean aquaculture sites, sul genes were detected in 16 isolates and dfr genes in 19. Ten isolates were shown to contain both sul and dfr genes. MIC and disc diffusion zones assays were performed to measure the phenotypic susceptibilities of the 39 isolates. Normalized resistance interpretation was applied to these data to categorize isolates as either fully susceptible or as manifesting reduced susceptibility. The standard CLSI protocols specify the use of a mixture of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20:1) in both MIC and disc diffusion tests. Using the CLSI MIC protocol, 100%…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

4.5 years within-patient evolution of a colistin resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258.

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) has emerged globally over the last decade as a major nosocomial pathogen that threatens patient care. These highly resistant bacteria are mostly associated with a single Kp clonal group, CG258, but the reasons for its host and hospital adaptation remain largely unknown.We analyzed the in vivo evolution of a colistin-resistant KPC-Kp CG258 strain that contaminated a patient following an endoscopy and was responsible for a fatal bacteremia 4.5 years later. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 17 KPC-Kp isolates from this patient; single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed and their implication in antimicrobial resistance and bacterial…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Cloning of the wheat Yr15 resistance gene sheds light on the plant tandem kinase-pseudokinase family.

Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating fungal disease threatening much of global wheat production. Race-specific resistance (R)-genes are used to control rust diseases, but the rapid emergence of virulent Pst races has prompted the search for a more durable resistance. Here, we report the cloning of Yr15, a broad-spectrum R-gene derived from wild emmer wheat, which encodes a putative kinase-pseudokinase protein, designated as wheat tandem kinase 1, comprising a unique R-gene structure in wheat. The existence of a similar gene architecture in 92 putative proteins across the plant kingdom, including the barley RPG1…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Convergent evolution of complex genomic rearrangements in two fungal meiotic drive elements.

Meiotic drive is widespread in nature. The conflict it generates is expected to be an important motor for evolutionary change and innovation. In this study, we investigated the genomic consequences of two large multi-gene meiotic drive elements, Sk-2 and Sk-3, found in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora intermedia. Using long-read sequencing, we generated the first complete and well-annotated genome assemblies of large, highly diverged, non-recombining regions associated with meiotic drive elements. Phylogenetic analysis shows that, even though Sk-2 and Sk-3 are located in the same chromosomal region, they do not form sister clades, suggesting independent origins or at least a long…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in a highly virulent Escherichia coli lineage.

Resistance to last-line polymyxins mediated by the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) represents a new threat to global human health. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an mcr-1-positive multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (MS8345). We show that MS8345 belongs to serotype O2:K1:H4, has a large 241,164-bp IncHI2 plasmid that carries 15 other antibiotic resistance genes (including the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase blaCTX-M-1) and 3 putative multidrug efflux systems, and contains 14 chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes. MS8345 also carries a large ColV-like virulence plasmid that has been associated with E. coli bacteremia. Whole-genome phylogeny revealed that MS8345 clusters within a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and characterization of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate KUB3006 carrying a cfr(B)-transposon on its chromosome and optrA-plasmid.

Linezolid (LZD) has become one of the most important antimicrobial agents for infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, including those caused by Enterococcus species. LZD-resistant (LR) genetic features include mutations in 23S rRNA/ribosomal proteins, a plasmid-borne 23S rRNA methyltransferase gene cfr, and ribosomal protection genes (optrA and poxtA). Recently, a cfr gene variant, cfr(B), was identified in a Tn6218-like transposon (Tn) in a Clostridioides difficile isolate. Here, we isolated an LR Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate, KUB3006, from a urine specimen of a patient with urinary tract infection during hospitalization in 2017. Comparative and whole-genome analyses were performed to characterize the genetic…

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