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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome wide characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serogroup O6 isolates from multiple outbreaks and sporadic infections from 1975-2016.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea globally, particularly among children under the age of five in developing countries. ETEC O6 is the most common ETEC serogroup, yet the genome wide population structure of isolates of this serogroup is yet to be determined. In this study, we have characterized 40 ETEC O6 isolates collected between 1975-2016 by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing. To determine the relatedness of isolates, we evaluated two methods-whole genome high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (whole genome-hqSNP) and core genome SNP analyses using Lyve-SET and Parsnp respectively. All isolates were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of ß-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli O157:H7 producing Stx2a.

Among Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains, those producing Stx2a cause more severe diseases. Atypical STEC O157:H7 strains showing a ß-glucuronidase-positive phenotype (GP STEC O157:H7) have rarely been isolated from humans, mostly from persons with asymptomatic or mild infections; Stx2a-producing strains have not been reported. We isolated, from a patient with bloody diarrhea, a GP STEC O157:H7 strain (PV15-279) that produces Stx2a in addition to Stx1a and Stx2c. Genomic comparison with other STEC O157 strains revealed that PV15-279 recently emerged from the stx1a/stx2c-positive GP STEC O157:H7 clone circulating in Japan. Major virulence genes are shared between typical (ß-glucuronidase-negative)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons of closely related malaria parasites differing in virulence and sequestration pattern.

Background: Malaria parasite species differ greatly in the harm they do to humans. While P. falciparum kills hundreds of thousands per year, P. vivax kills much less often and P. malariae is relatively benign. Strains of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi show phenotypic variation in virulence during infections of laboratory mice. This make it an excellent species to study genes which may be responsible for this trait. By understanding the mechanisms which underlie differences in virulence we can learn how parasites adapt to their hosts and how we might prevent disease. Methods: Here we present a complete reference genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of a B chromosome in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.

B chromosomes (Bs) were discovered a century ago, and since then, most studies have focused on describing their distribution and abundance using traditional cytogenetics. Only recently have attempts been made to understand their structure and evolution at the level of DNA sequence. Many questions regarding the origin, structure, function, and evolution of B chromosomes remain unanswered. Here, we identify B chromosome sequences from several species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi by examining the ratios of DNA sequence coverage in individuals with or without B chromosomes. We examined the efficiency of this method, and compared results using both Illumina and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Role of phage ?1 in two strains of Salmonella Rissen, sensitive and resistant to phage ?1.

The study describes the Salmonella Rissen phage ?1 isolated from the ?1-sensitive Salmonella Rissen strain RW. The same phage was then used to select the resistant strain RR?1+, which can harbour or not ?1.Following this approach, we found that ?1, upon excision from RW cells with mitomycin, behaves as a temperate phage: lyses host cells and generates phage particles; instead, upon spontaneous excision from RR?1+ cells, it does not generate phage particles; causes loss of phage resistance; switches the O-antigen from the smooth to the rough phenotype, and favors the transition of Salmonella Rissen from the planktonic to the biofilm…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii genomes shows a high level of genome plasticity and warrants separation into new species-level taxa.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a ubiquitous member of the human gut microbiome, constituting up to 15% of the total bacteria in the human gut. Substantial evidence connects decreased levels of F. prausnitzii with the onset and progression of certain forms of inflammatory bowel disease, which has been attributed to its anti-inflammatory potential. Two phylogroups of F. prausnitzii have been identified, with a decrease in phylogroup I being a more sensitive marker of intestinal inflammation. Much of the genomic and physiological data available to date was collected using phylogroup II strains. Little analysis of F. prausnitzii genomes has been performed so far…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional landscape of a blaKPC-2 plasmid and response to imipenem exposure in Escherichia coli TOP10.

The diffusion of KPC-2 carbapenemase is closely related to the spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae of the clonal-group 258 and linked to IncFIIK plasmids. Little is known about the biology of multi-drug resistant plasmids and the reasons of their successful dissemination. Using E. coli TOP10 strain harboring a multi-replicon IncFIIK-IncFIB blaKPC-2-gene carrying plasmid pBIC1a from K. pneumoniae ST-258 clinical isolate BIC-1, we aimed to identify basal gene expression and the effects of imipenem exposure using whole transcriptome approach by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Independently of the antibiotic pressure, most of the plasmid-backbone genes were expressed at low levels. The most expressed pBIC1a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and genetic insights into a cosmopolitan fungus, Paecilomyces variotii (Eurotiales).

Species in the genus Paecilomyces, a member of the fungal order Eurotiales, are ubiquitous in nature and impact a variety of human endeavors. Here, the biology of one common species, Paecilomyces variotii, was explored using genomics and functional genetics. Sequencing the genome of two isolates revealed key genome and gene features in this species. A striking feature of the genome was the two-part nature, featuring large stretches of DNA with normal GC content separated by AT-rich regions, a hallmark of many plant-pathogenic fungal genomes. These AT-rich regions appeared to have been mutated by repeat-induced point (RIP) mutations. We developed methods…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phototaxis in a wild isolate of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.

Many cyanobacteria, which use light as an energy source via photosynthesis, have evolved the ability to guide their movement toward or away from a light source. This process, termed “phototaxis,” enables organisms to localize in optimal light environments for improved growth and fitness. Mechanisms of phototaxis have been studied in the coccoid cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, but the rod-shaped Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, studied for circadian rhythms and metabolic engineering, has no phototactic motility. In this study we report a recent environmental isolate of S. elongatus, the strain UTEX 3055, whose genome is 98.5% identical to that of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sex chromosome evolution via two genes

The origin of sex chromosomes has been hypothesized to involve the linkage of factors with antagonistic effects on male and female function. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is an ideal species to test this hypothesis, as the X and Y chromosomes are cytologically homomorphic and recently evolved from an ancestral autosome pair in association with a shift from hermaphroditism to dioecy. Mutagenesis screens paired with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) directly implicate Y-specific genes that respectively suppress female organ development and are necessary for male gametophyte development. Comparison of contiguous X and Y chromosome shows that loss of recombination…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

De novo assembly of the Pasteuria penetrans genome reveals high plasticity, host dependency, and BclA-like collagens.

Pasteuria penetrans is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterial parasite of Meloidogyne spp. the most economically damaging genus of plant parasitic nematodes globally. The obligate antagonistic nature of P. penetrans makes it an attractive candidate biological control agent. However, deployment of P. penetrans for this purpose is inhibited by a lack of understanding of its metabolism and the molecular mechanics underpinning parasitism of the host, in particular the initial attachment of the endospore to the nematode cuticle. Several attempts to assemble the genomes of species within this genus have been unsuccessful. Primarily this is due to the obligate parasitic nature of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Integrative haplotype estimation with sub-linear complexity

The number of human genomes being genotyped or sequenced increases exponentially and efficient haplotype estimation methods able to handle this amount of data are now required. Here, we present a new method, SHAPEIT4, which substantially improves upon other methods to process large genotype and high coverage sequencing datasets. It notably exhibits sub-linear scaling with sample size, provides highly accurate haplotypes and allows integrating external phasing information such as large reference panels of haplotypes, collections of pre-phased variants and long sequencing reads. We provide SHAPET4 in an open source format on https://odelaneau.github.io/shapeit4/ and demonstrate its performance in terms of accuracy and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene duplication: Convergent evolution in multiple plant species.

One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in eight weed species, ranging from 3-5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size. The replicated sequence contains several classes of mobile genetic elements including helitrons, raising the intriguing possibility of extra-chromosomal…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mutators as drivers of adaptation in Streptococcus and a risk factor for host jumps and vaccine escape

Heritable hypermutable strains deficient in DNA repair genes (mutators) facilitate microbial adaptation as they may rapidly generate beneficial mutations. Mutators deficient in mismatch (MMR) and oxidised guanine (OG) repair are abundant in clinical samples and show increased adaptive potential in experimental infection models but their role in pathoadaptation is poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of mutators in epidemiology and evolution of the broad host pathogen, Streptococcus iniae, employing 80 strains isolated globally over 40 years. We determine phylogenetic relationship among S. iniae using 10,267 non-recombinant core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), estimate their mutation rate by fluctuation analysis,…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Functional analysis of the first complete genome sequence of a multidrug resistant sequence type 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant opportunistic pathogen of humans. The ST2 lineage is frequently multidrug resistant and accounts for most of the clinical disease worldwide. However, there are no publically available, closed ST2 genomes and pathogenesis studies have not focused on these strains. We report the complete genome and methylome of BPH0662, a multidrug resistant, hospital adapted, ST2 S. epidermidis, and describe the correlation between resistome and phenotype, as well as demonstrate its relationship to publically available, international ST2 isolates. Furthermore, we delineate the methylome determined by the two type I restriction modification systems present in BPH0662 through heterologous expression…

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