June 1, 2021  |  

Sequencing and de novo assembly of the 17q21.31 disease associated region using long reads generated by Pacific Biosciences SMRT Sequencing technology.

Assessment of genome-wide variation revealed regions of the genome with complex, structurally diverse haplotypes that are insufficiently represented in the human reference genome. The 17q21.31 region is one of the most dynamic and complex regions of the human genome. Different haplotypes exist, in direct and inverted orientation, showing evidence of positive selection and predisposing to microdeletion associated with mental retardation. Sequencing of different haplotypes is extremely important to characterize the spectrum of structural variation at this locus. However, de novo assembly with second-generation sequencing reads is still problematic. Using PacBio technology we have sequenced and de novo assembled a tiling path of eight BAC clones (~1.6 Mb region) across this medically relevant region from the library of a hydatidiform mole. Complete hydatidiform moles arise from the fertilization of an enucleated egg from a single sperm and therefore carry a haploid complement of the human genome, eliminating allelic variation that may confound mapping and assembly. The PacBio RS system enables single molecule real time sequencing, featuring long reads and fast turnaround times. With deep sequencing, PacBio reads were able to generate a very uniform sequencing coverage with close to 100% coverage of most of the target interval regions covered. Due to long read lengths, the PacBio RS data could be accurately assembled.


June 1, 2021  |  

Getting the most out of your PacBio libraries with size selection.

PacBio RS II sequencing chemistries provide read lengths beyond 20 kb with high consensus accuracy. The long read lengths of P4-C2 chemistry and demonstrated consensus accuracy of 99.999% are ideal for applications such as de novo assembly, targeted sequencing and isoform sequencing. The recently launched P5-C3 chemistry generates even longer reads with N50 often >10,000 bp, making it the best choice for scaffolding and spanning structural rearrangements. With these chemistry advances, PacBio’s read length performance is now primarily determined by the SMRTbell library itself. Size selection of a high-quality, sheared 20 kb library using the BluePippin™ System has been demonstrated to increase the N50 read length by as much as 5 kb with C3 chemistry. BluePippin size selection or a more stringent AMPure® PB selection cutoff can be used to recover long fragments from degraded genomic material. The selection of chemistries, P4-C2 versus P5-C3, is highly dependent on the final size distribution of the SMRTbell library and experimental goals. PacBio’s long read lengths also allow for the sequencing of full-length cDNA libraries at single-molecule resolution. However, longer transcripts are difficult to detect due to lower abundance, amplification bias, and preferential loading of smaller SMRTbell constructs. Without size selection, most sequenced transcripts are 1-1.5 kb. Size selection dramatically increases the number of transcripts >1.5 kb, and is essential for >3 kb transcripts.


June 1, 2021  |  

Characterization of NNRTI mutations in HIV-1 RT using Single Molecule, Real-Time SMRT Sequencing.

Background: Genotypic testing of chronic viral infections is an important part of patient therapy and requires assays capable of detecting the entire spectrum of viral mutations. Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing offers several advantages to other sequencing technologies, including superior resolution of mixed populations and long read lengths capable of spanning entire viral protein coding regions. We examined detection sensitivity of SMRT sequencing using a mixture of HIV-1 RT gene coding regions containing single NNRTI mutations. Methodology: SMRTbell templates were prepared from PCR products generated from a prospective reference material being developed by BC Center of Excellence for HIV/AIDS, and contained a mixture of fifteen infectious viruses containing single NNRTI resistance mutations (viz V90I, K101E, K103N, V108I, E138A/G/K/Q, V179D, Y181C, Y188C, G190A/S, M230L and P236L) built upon the HIV-1LAI molecular clone. Templates were sequenced on the PacBio RS II to obtain single molecule long reads using P4/C2 chemistry, using 180 minute movie collection without stage start. The relative abundances of the mutant viruses were then estimated using codon-aware analysis methods. Results: Sequencing of these templates produced average read lengths of 5.0 KB, comprising 40,000-fold coverage across the entire amplicon per SMRT Cell. All the expected mutations in the mixture of mutant viruses were accurately identified. Frequencies of NNRTI variants estimated ranged from 0.5% to 12.5%. Conclusions: Codon analysis revealed a number of variants across the amplicon with highly consistent results across SMRT Cells. From a single SMRT Cell, variants were accurately and reliably detected down to 0.5% with simple analyses. Long polymerase reads and high accuracy reads make it possible to call variants from just a few molecules. SMRT Sequencing can identify species comprising a mixed viral population, with granularity and low cost of consumables allowing for smaller multiplexing of samples and first-in-first-out processing.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing solutions for large genomes and transcriptomes.

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing holds promise for addressing new frontiers in large genome complexities, such as long, highly repetitive, low-complexity regions and duplication events, and differentiating between transcript isoforms that are difficult to resolve with short-read technologies. We present solutions available for both reference genome improvement (>100 MB) and transcriptome research to best leverage long reads that have exceeded 20 Kb in length. Benefits for these applications are further realized with consistent use of size-selection of input sample using the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science. Highlights from our genome assembly projects using the latest P5-C3 chemistry on model organisms will be shared. Assembly contig N50 have exceeded 6 Mb and we observed longest contig exceeding 12.5 Mb with an average base quality of QV50. Additionally, the value of long, intact reads to provide a no-assembly approach to investigate transcript isoforms using our Iso-Seq Application will be presented.


June 1, 2021  |  

A comparison of assemblers and strategies for complex, large-genome sequencing with PacBio long reads.

PacBio sequencing holds promise for addressing large-genome complexities, such as long, highly repetitive, low-complexity regions and duplication events that are difficult to resolve with short-read technologies. Several strategies, with varying outcomes, are available for de novo sequencing and assembling of larger genomes. Using a diploid fungal genome, estimated to be ~80 Mb in size, as the basis dataset for comparison, we highlight assembly options when using only PacBio sequencing or a combined strategy leveraging data sets from multiple sequencing technologies. Data generated from SMRT Sequencing was subjected to assembly using different large-genome assemblers, and comparisons of the results will be shown. These include results generated with HGAP, Celera Assembler, MIRA, PBJelly, and other assembly tools currently in development. Improvements observed include a near 50% reduction in the number of contigs coupled with at least a doubling of contig N50 size in genome assemblies incorporating SMRT Sequencing data. We further show how incorporating long reads also highlights new challenges and missed insights of short-read assemblies arising from heterozygosity inherent in multiploid genomes.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing solutions for investigative studies to understand evolutionary processes.

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing holds promise for addressing new frontiers to understand molecular mechanisms in evolution and gain insight into adaptive strategies. With read lengths exceeding 10 kb, we are able to sequence high-quality, closed microbial genomes with associated plasmids, and investigate large genome complexities, such as long, highly repetitive, low-complexity regions and multiple tandem-duplication events. Improved genome quality, observed at 99.9999% (QV60) consensus accuracy, and significant reduction of gap regions in reference genomes (up to and beyond 50%) allow researchers to better understand coding sequences with high confidence, investigate potential regulatory mechanisms in noncoding regions, and make inferences about evolutionary strategies that are otherwise missed by the coverage biases associated with short- read sequencing technologies. Additional benefits afforded by SMRT Sequencing include the simultaneous capability to detect epigenomic modifications and obtain full-length cDNA transcripts that obsolete the need for assembly. With direct sequencing of DNA in real-time, this has resulted in the identification of numerous base modifications and motifs, which genome-wide profiles have linked to specific methyltransferase activities. Our new offering, the Iso-Seq Application, allows for the accurate differentiation between transcript isoforms that are difficult to resolve with short-read technologies. PacBio reads easily span transcripts such that both 5’/3’ primers for cDNA library generation and the poly-A tail are observed. As such, exon configuration and intron retention events can be analyzed without ambiguity. This technological advance is useful for characterizing transcript diversity and improving gene structure annotations in reference genomes. We review solutions available with SMRT Sequencing, from targeted sequencing efforts to obtaining reference genomes (>100 Mb). This includes strategies for identifying microsatellites and conducting phylogenetic comparisons with targeted gene families. We highlight how to best leverage our long reads that have exceeded 20 kb in length for research investigations, as well as currently available bioinformatics strategies for analysis. Benefits for these applications are further realized with consistent use of size selection of input sample using the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science as demonstrated in our genome improvement projects. Using the latest P5-C3 chemistry on model organisms, these efforts have yielded an observed contig N50 of ~6 Mb, with the longest contig exceeding 12.5 Mb and an average base quality of QV50.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing solutions for plant genomes and transcriptomes

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing provides efficient, streamlined solutions to address new frontiers in plant genomes and transcriptomes. Inherent challenges presented by highly repetitive, low-complexity regions and duplication events are directly addressed with multi- kilobase read lengths exceeding 8.5 kb on average, with many exceeding 20 kb. Differentiating between transcript isoforms that are difficult to resolve with short-read technologies is also now possible. We present solutions available for both reference genome and transcriptome research that best leverage long reads in several plant projects including algae, Arabidopsis, rice, and spinach using only the PacBio platform. Benefits for these applications are further realized with consistent use of size-selection of input sample using the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science. We will share highlights from our genome projects using the latest P5- C3 chemistry to generate high-quality reference genomes with the highest contiguity, contig N50 exceeding 1 Mb, and average base quality of QV50. Additionally, the value of long, intact reads to provide a no-assembly approach to investigate transcript isoforms using our Iso-Seq protocol will be presented for full transcriptome characterization and targeted surveys of genes with complex structures. PacBio provides the most comprehensive assembly with annotation when combining offerings for both genome and transcriptome research efforts. For more focused investigation, PacBio also offers researchers opportunities to easily investigate and survey genes with complex structures.


June 1, 2021  |  

Resolving the ‘dark matter’ in genomes.

Second-generation sequencing has brought about tremendous insights into the genetic underpinnings of biology. However, there are many functionally important and medically relevant regions of genomes that are currently difficult or impossible to sequence, resulting in incomplete and fragmented views of genomes. Two main causes are (i) limitations to read DNA of extreme sequence content (GC-rich or AT-rich regions, low complexity sequence contexts) and (ii) insufficient read lengths which leave various forms of structural variation unresolved and result in mapping ambiguities.


June 1, 2021  |  

Genome analysis of a bacterium that causes lameness.

Lameness is a significant problem resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenue annually. In commercial broilers, the most common cause of lameness is bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO). We are using a wire flooring model to induce lameness attributable to BCO. We used 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing to determine that Staphylococcus spp. were the main species associated with BCO. Staphylococcus agnetis, which previously had not been isolated from poultry, was the principal species isolated from the majority of the bone lesion samples. Administering S. agnetis in the drinking water to broilers reared on wire flooring increased the incidence of BCO three-fold when compared with broilers drinking tap water (P = 0.001). We found that the minimum effective dose of Staphylococcus agnetis to induce BCO in broilers grown on wire flooring experiment is 105 cfu/ml. We used PacBio and Illumina sequencing to assemble a 2.4 Mbp contig representing the genome and a 34 kbp contig for the largest plasmid of S. agnetis. Annotation of this genome is underway through comparative genomics with other Staphylococcus genomes, and identification of virulence factors. Our goal is to elucidate genetic diversity, toxins, and pathogenicity determinants, for this poorly characterized species. Isolating pathogenic bacterial species, defining their likely route of transmission to broilers, and genomic analyses will contribute substantially to the development of measures for mitigating BCO losses in poultry.


June 1, 2021  |  

A genome assembly of the domestic goat from 70x coverage of single molecule, real-time sequence.

Goat is an important source of milk, meat, and fiber, especially in developing countries. An advantage of goats as livestock is the low maintenance requirements and high adaptability compared to other milk producers. The global population of domestic goats exceeds 800 million. In Africa, goat production is characterized by low productivity levels, and attempts to introduce more productive breeds have met with poor success due in part to nutritional constraints. It has been suggested that incorporation of selective breeding within the herds adapted for survival could represent one approach to improving food security across Africa. A recently produced genome assembly of a Chinese Yunnan breed goat, based on 192 Gb of short reads across a range of insert sizes from 180 bp to 20 kb, reported a contig N50 of 18.7 kb. The scaffold N50 was improved from 2.2 Mb to 3.1 Mb by addition of fosmid end sequence, with an estimated 140 million Ns in gaps and 91% coverage. The assembly has proven somewhat problematic for pursuing genome-wide association analysis with SNP arrays, apparently due in part to errors in ordering of markers using the draft genome. In order to provide a higher quality assembly, we sequenced a highly inbred, San Clemente breed goat genome using 458 SMRT cells on the Pacific Biosciences platform. These cells generated 193.5 Gbases of sequence after processing into subreads, with mean 5110 bases and max subread length of 40.5 kb. This sequence data generated an assembly using the recently reported MHAP error correction approach and Celera Assembler v8.2. The contig N50 was 2.5 Mb, with the largest contig spanning 19.5 Mb. Additional characteristics of the assembly will be presented.


June 1, 2021  |  

De novo assembly of a complex panicoid grass genome using ultra-long PacBio reads with P6C4 chemistry

Drought is responsible for much of the global losses in crop yields and understanding how plants naturally cope with drought stress is essential for breeding and engineering crops for the changing climate. Resurrection plants desiccate to complete dryness during times of drought, then “come back to life” once water is available making them an excellent model for studying drought tolerance. Understanding the molecular networks governing how resurrection plants handle desiccation will provide targets for crop engineering. Oropetium thomaeum (Oro) is a resurrection plant that also has the smallest known grass genome at 250 Mb compared to Brachypodium distachyon (300 Mb) and rice (350 Mb). Plant genomes, especially grasses, have complex repeat structures such as telomeres, centromeres, and ribosomal gene cassettes, and high heterozygosity, which makes them difficult to assembly using short read next generation sequencing technologies. Ultra-long PacBio reads using the new P6C4 chemistry and the latest 15kb Blue Pippin size-selection protocol to generate 20kb insert libraries that yielded an average read length of 12kb providing ~72X coverage, and 10X coverage with reads over 20kb. The HGAP assembly covers 98% of the genome with a contig N50 of 2.4 Mb, which makes it one of the highest quality and most complete plant genomes assembled to date. Oro has a compact genome structure compared to other grasses with only 16% repeat sequences but has very good collinearity with other grasses. Understanding the genomic mechanisms of extreme desiccation tolerance in resurrection plants like Oro will provide insights for engineering and intelligent breeding of improved food, fuel, and fiber crops.


June 1, 2021  |  

Resources for advanced bioinformaticians working in plant and animal genomes with SMRT Sequencing.

Significant advances in bioinformatics tool development have been made to more efficiently leverage and deliver high-quality genome assemblies with PacBio long-read data. Current data throughput of SMRT Sequencing delivers average read lengths ranging from 10-15 kb with the longest reads exceeding 40 kb. This has resulted in consistent demonstration of a minimum 10-fold improvement in genome assemblies with contig N50 in the megabase range compared to assemblies generated using only short- read technologies. This poster highlights recent advances and resources available for advanced bioinformaticians and developers interested in the current state-of-the-art large genome solutions available as open-source code from PacBio and third-party solutions, including HGAP, MHAP, and ECTools. Resources and tools available on GitHub are reviewed, as well as datasets representing major model research organisms made publically available for community evaluation or interested developers.


June 1, 2021  |  

Targeted SMRT Sequencing and phasing using Roche NimbleGen’s SeqCap EZ enrichment

As a cost-effective alternative to whole genome human sequencing, targeted sequencing of specific regions, such as exomes or panels of relevant genes, has become increasingly common. These methods typically include direct PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of interest, or the capture of these targets via probe-based hybridization. Commonly, these approaches are designed to amplify or capture exonic regions and thereby result in amplicons or fragments that are a few hundred base pairs in length, a length that is well-addressed with short-read sequencing technologies. These approaches typically provide very good coverage and can identify SNPs in the targeted region, but are unable to haplotype these variants. Here we describe a targeted sequencing workflow that combines Roche NimbleGen’s SeqCap EZ enrichment technology with Pacific Biosciences’ SMRT Sequencing to provide a more comprehensive view of variants and haplotype information over multi-kilobase regions. While the SeqCap EZ technology is typically used to capture 200 bp fragments, we demonstrate that 6 kb fragments can also be utilized to enrich for long fragments that extend beyond the targeted capture site and well into (and often across) the flanking intronic regions. When combined with the long reads of SMRT Sequencing, multi-kilobase regions of the human genome can be phased and variants detected in exons, introns and intergenic regions.


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