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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Ectomycorrhizal ecology is imprinted in the genome of the dominant symbiotic fungus Cenococcum geophilum.

The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes are also present in C. geophilum with symbiosis-induced, taxon-specific genes of unknown function and reduced numbers of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. C. geophilum still holds a significant set of genes in categories known to be involved in pathogenesis and shows an increased genome size due to transposable elements proliferation. Transcript profiling revealed a striking upregulation of membrane transporters, including…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic, physiologic, and proteomic insights into metabolic versatility in Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from deep-sea water.

Roseobacter clade bacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments and now thought to be significant contributors to carbon and sulfur cycling. However, only a few strains of roseobacters have been isolated from the deep-sea water column and have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we present the complete genomes of phylogentically closed related Thiobacimonas profunda JLT2016 and Pelagibaca abyssi JLT2014 isolated from deep-sea water of the Southeastern Pacific. The genome sequences showed that the two deep-sea roseobacters carry genes for versatile metabolisms with functional capabilities such as ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-mediated carbon fixation and inorganic sulfur oxidation. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of plant growth-promoting bacterium Leifsonia xyli SE134, a possible gibberellin and auxin producer.

Leifsonia xyli SE134 is a potential plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a soil in Daegu, Republic of Korea, which produces large amounts of gibberellin (GA) and indole acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of L. xyli SE134 by the Pacific Biosciences RSII (PacBio) Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The genome of L. xyli SE134 contains a single chromosome that is 3,596,761bp in length, with 70.2% G+C content. The genome contains 3466 protein-coding genes (CDSs) and 51 rRNA- and 46 tRNA-coding genes. By genomic analysis, we identified genes that are potentially involved in plant…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of pigmentation-negative Yersinia pestis strain Cadman.

Here, we report the genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain Cadman, an attenuated strain lacking the pgm locus. Y. pestis is the causative agent of plague and generally must be worked with under biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) conditions. However, strains lacking the pgm locus are considered safe to work with under BSL-2 conditions. Copyright © 2016 Lovett et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of four different Bordetella sp. isolates causing human respiratory infections.

Species of the genus Bordetella associate with various animal hosts, frequently causing respiratory disease. Bordetella pertussis is the primary agent of whooping cough and other Bordetella species can cause similar cough illness. Here, we report four complete genome sequences from isolates of different Bordetella species recovered from human respiratory infections. Copyright © 2016 Weigand et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic metal resistance profile of Pseudomonas putida strain S13.1.2 isolated from a vineyard soil.

Trace metals are required in many cellular processes in bacteria but also induce toxic effects to cells when present in excess. As such, various forms of adaptive responses towards extracellular trace metal ions are essential for the survival and fitness of bacteria in their environment. A soil Pseudomonas putida, strain S13.1.2 has been isolated from French vineyard soil samples, and shown to confer resistance to copper ions. Further investigation revealed a high capacity to tolerate elevated concentrations of various heavy metals including nickel, cobalt, cadmium, zinc and arsenic. The complete genome analysis was conducted using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics and physiology of the butyrate-producing bacterium Intestinimonas butyriciproducens.

Intestinimonas is a newly described bacterial genus with representative strains present in the intestinal tract of human and other animals. Despite unique metabolic features including the production of butyrate from both sugars and amino acids, there is to date no data on their diversity, ecology, and physiology. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach, Intestinimomas was found to include at least three species that colonize primarily the human and mouse intestine. We focused on the most common and cultivable species of the genus, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and performed detailed genomic and physiological comparison of strains SRB521(T) and AF211, isolated from the mouse and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. R5-57.

The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics reveals Lysinibacillus sphaericus group comprises a novel species.

Early in the 1990s, it was recognized that Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one of the most popular and effective entomopathogenic bacteria, was a highly heterogeneous group. Many authors have even proposed it comprises more than one species, but the lack of phenotypic traits that guarantee an accurate differentiation has not allowed this issue to be clarified. Now that genomic technologies are rapidly advancing, it is possible to address the problem from a whole genome perspective, getting insights into the phylogeny, evolutive history and biology itself.The genome of the Colombian strain L. sphaericus OT4b.49 was sequenced, assembled and annotated, obtaining 3 chromosomal contigs…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Interchromosomal core duplicons drive both evolutionary instability and disease susceptibility of the Chromosome 8p23.1 region.

Recurrent rearrangements of Chromosome 8p23.1 are associated with congenital heart defects and developmental delay. The complexity of this region has led to inconsistencies in the current reference assembly, confounding studies of genetic variation. Using comparative sequence-based approaches, we generated a high-quality 6.3-Mbp alternate reference assembly of an inverted Chromosome 8p23.1 haplotype. Comparison with nonhuman primates reveals a 746-kbp duplicative transposition and two separate inversion events that arose in the last million years of human evolution. The breakpoints associated with these rearrangements map to an ape-specific interchromosomal core duplicon that clusters at sites of evolutionary inversion (P = 7.8 × 10(-5)).…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome characterization of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and resurgence of serogroup W, Niger, 2015.

In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An ethnically relevant consensus Korean reference genome is a step towards personal reference genomes.

Human genomes are routinely compared against a universal reference. However, this strategy could miss population-specific and personal genomic variations, which may be detected more efficiently using an ethnically relevant or personal reference. Here we report a hybrid assembly of a Korean reference genome (KOREF) for constructing personal and ethnic references by combining sequencing and mapping methods. We also build its consensus variome reference, providing information on millions of variants from 40 additional ethnically homogeneous genomes from the Korean Personal Genome Project. We find that the ethnically relevant consensus reference can be beneficial for efficient variant detection. Systematic comparison of human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection.

Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18?500 years BP (12?355-24?757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism. Evolution within the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon serotype O1b lineage has been slow, with 63 SNPs describing the variance over 27 years. Isolates from the prevailing lineage are poorly/non-motile compared to a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium estertheticum DSM 8809, a microbe identified in spoiled vacuum packed beef.

Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk. In this study the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC014 isolated from the toothfish.

Foodborne illness can occur due to various pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and can cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a foodborne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which was isolated from suspected contaminated toothfish from South Korea. Additionally, we extended our knowledge of genomic characteristics of the FORC_014 strain through comparative analysis using the complete sequences of other V. parahaemolyticus strains whose complete genomes have previously been reported.The complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014 was generated using the PacBio RS platform with single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing.…

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