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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Case report of an extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection with genomic characterization of the strain and review of similar cases in the United States

Reports of extensively drug-resistant and pan-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-KP and PDR-KP) cases are increasing worldwide. Here, we report a case of XDR-KP with an in-depth molecular characterization of resistance genes using whole-genome sequencing, and we review all cases of XDR-KP and PDR-KP reported in the United States to date.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Somatic hypermutation of T cell receptor a chain contributes to selection in nurse shark thymus.

Since the discovery of the T cell receptor (TcR), immunologists have assigned somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a mechanism employed solely by B cells to diversify their antigen receptors. Remarkably, we found SHM acting in the thymus on a chain locus of shark TcR. SHM in developing shark T cells likely is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and results in both point and tandem mutations that accumulate non-conservative amino acid replacements within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). Mutation frequency at TcRa was as high as that seen at B cell receptor loci (BcR) in sharks and mammals, and the mechanism of SHM…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis in a Bangladeshi community as revealed by whole genome sequencing.

We studied the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis infections in slum-dwelling infants from Dhaka over a 2-year period. Cryptosporidium hominis infections were common during the monsoon, and were genetically diverse as measured by gp60 genotyping and whole-genome resequencing. Recombination in the parasite was evidenced by the decay of linkage disequilibrium in the genome over

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mycobacterial biomaterials and resources for researchers.

There are many resources available to mycobacterial researchers, including culture collections around the world that distribute biomaterials to the general scientific community, genomic and clinical databases, and powerful bioinformatics tools. However, many of these resources may be unknown to the research community. This review article aims to summarize and publicize many of these resources, thus strengthening the quality and reproducibility of mycobacterial research by providing the scientific community access to authenticated and quality-controlled biomaterials and a wealth of information, analytical tools and research opportunities.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Diversity among blaKPC-containing plasmids in Escherichia coli and other bacterial species isolated from the same patients.

Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a significant public health concern, and genes encoding the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have contributed to the global spread of carbapenem resistance. In the current study, we used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the diversity of blaKPC-containing plasmids and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among 26 blaKPC-containing Escherichia coli, and 13 blaKPC-containing Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella variicola, Klebsiella michiganensis, and Serratia marcescens strains, which were isolated from the same patients as the blaKPC-containing E. coli. A blaKPC-containing IncN and/or IncFIIK plasmid was identified in 77% (30/39) of the E. coli and other bacterial species analyzed. Complete…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PBHoover and CigarRoller: a method for confident haploid variant calling on Pacific Biosciences data and its application to heterogeneous population analysis

Motivation: Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has important and underutilized advantages that amplification-based platforms lack. Lack of systematic error (e.g. GC-bias), complete de novo assembly (including large repetitive regions) without scaffolding, can be mentioned. SMRT sequencing, however suffers from high random error rate and low sequencing depth (older chemistries). Here, we introduce PBHoover, software that uses a heuristic calling algorithm in order to make base calls with high certainty in low coverage regions. This software is also capable of mixed population detection with high sensitivity. PBHoovertextquoterights CigarRoller attachment improves sequencing depth in low-coverage regions through CIGAR-string correction. Results: We tested…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Closed genome and comparative phylogenetic analysis of the clinical multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei strain 866.

Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the US with over 500,000 cases reported annually. Here, we present the complete genome of the clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) strain 866, which is highly susceptible to bacteriophage infections. The strain has a circular chromosome of 4.85?Mb and carries a 113?kb MDR plasmid. This IncB/O/K/Z-type plasmid, termed p866, confers resistance to five different classes of antibiotics including ß-lactamase, sulfonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and trimethoprim. Comparative analysis of the plasmid architecture and gene inventory revealed that p866 shares its plasmid backbone with previously described IncB/O/K/Z-type Shigella spp. and Escherichia coli plasmids,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into virulence mechanisms of Leishmania donovani: evidence from an atypical strain.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with diverse clinical phenotypes, determined by parasite, host and vector interactions. Despite the advances in molecular biology and the availability of more Leishmania genome references in recent years, the association between parasite species and distinct clinical phenotypes remains poorly understood. We present a genomic comparison of an atypical variant of Leishmania donovani from a South Asian focus, where it mostly causes cutaneous form of leishmaniasis.Clinical isolates from six cutaneous leishmaniasis patients (CL-SL); 2 of whom were poor responders to antimony (CL-PR), and two visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL-SL) were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The central exons of the human MUC2 and MUC6 mucins are highly repetitive and variable in sequence between individuals

The DNA sequence of the two human mucin genes MUC2 and MUC6 have not been completely resolved due to the repetitive nature of their central exon coding for Proline, Threonine and Serine rich sequences. The exact nucleotide sequence of these exons has remained unknown for a long time due to limitations in traditional sequencing techniques. These are still very poorly covered in new whole genome sequencing projects with the corresponding protein sequences partly missing. We used a BAC clone containing both these genes and third generation sequencing technology, SMRT sequencing, to obtain the full-length contiguous MUC2 and MUC6 tandem repeat…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into multidrug-resistance, mating and virulence in Candida auris and related emerging species.

Candida auris is an emergent multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing increasing reports of outbreaks. While distantly related to C. albicans and C. glabrata, C. auris is closely related to rarely observed and often multidrug-resistant species from the C. haemulonii clade. Here, we analyze near complete genome assemblies for the four C. auris clades and three related species, and map intra- and inter-species rearrangements across the seven chromosomes. Using RNA-Seq-guided gene predictions, we find that most mating and meiosis genes are conserved and that clades contain either the MTLa or MTLa mating loci. Comparing the genomes of these emerging species to those…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The phylogenomic diversity of herbivore- associated Fibrobacter spp. is correlated to lignocellulose-degrading potential.

Members of the genus Fibrobacter are cellulose-degrading bacteria and common constituents of the gastrointestinal microbiota of herbivores. Although considerable phylogenetic diversity is observed among members of this group, few functional differences explaining the distinct ecological distributions of specific phylotypes have been described. In this study, we sequenced and performed a comparative analysis of whole genomes from 38 novel Fibrobacter strains against the type strains for the two formally described Fibrobacter species F. succinogenes strain S85 and F. intestinalis strain NR9. Significant differences in the number of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation were observed…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

PacBio assembly of a Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequence with Hi-C correction and manual annotation of the SICAvar gene family.

Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features.…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain.

Although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991, it had not been epidemic in Haiti for at least 100 years. Recently, however, there has been a severe outbreak of cholera in Haiti.We used third-generation single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing to determine the genome sequences of 2 clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates from the current outbreak in Haiti, 1 strain that caused cholera in Latin America in 1991, and 2 strains isolated in South Asia in 2002 and 2008. Using primary sequence data, we compared the genomes of these 5 strains and a set of previously obtained partial genomic sequences of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

New insights into dissemination and variation of the health care-associated pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii from genomic analysis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is a globally important nosocomial pathogen characterized by an increasing incidence of multidrug resistance. Routes of dissemination and gene flow among health care facilities are poorly resolved and are important for understanding the epidemiology of A. baumannii, minimizing disease transmission, and improving patient outcomes. We used whole-genome sequencing to assess diversity and genome dynamics in 49 isolates from one United States hospital system during one year from 2007 to 2008. Core single-nucleotide-variant-based phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple founder strains and multiple independent strains recovered from the same patient yet was insufficient to fully resolve strain relationships, where gene content…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Characterizing and measuring bias in sequence data.

DNA sequencing technologies deviate from the ideal uniform distribution of reads. These biases impair scientific and medical applications. Accordingly, we have developed computational methods for discovering, describing and measuring bias.We applied these methods to the Illumina, Ion Torrent, Pacific Biosciences and Complete Genomics sequencing platforms, using data from human and from a set of microbes with diverse base compositions. As in previous work, library construction conditions significantly influence sequencing bias. Pacific Biosciences coverage levels are the least biased, followed by Illumina, although all technologies exhibit error-rate biases in high- and low-GC regions and at long homopolymer runs. The GC-rich regions…

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