April 21, 2020  |  

Pacbio Sequencing Reveals Identical Organelle Genomes between American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and a Wild Relative.

Breeding efforts in the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), a North American perennial fruit crop of great importance, have been hampered by the limited genetic and phenotypic variability observed among cultivars and experimental materials. Most of the cultivars commercially used by cranberry growers today were derived from a few wild accessions bred in the 1950s. In different crops, wild germplasm has been used as an important genetic resource to incorporate novel traits and increase the phenotypic diversity of breeding materials. Vaccinium microcarpum (Turcz. ex Rupr.) Schmalh. and V. oxycoccos L., two closely related species, may be cross-compatible with the American cranberry, and could be useful to improve fruit quality such as phytochemical content. Furthermore, given their northern distribution, they could also help develop cold hardy cultivars. Although these species have previously been analyzed in diversity studies, genomic characterization and comparative studies are still lacking. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the organelle genomes of the cultivated American cranberry and its wild relative, V. microcarpum. PacBio sequencing technology allowed us to assemble both mitochondrial and plastid genomes at very high coverage and in a single circular scaffold. A comparative analysis revealed that the mitochondrial genome sequences were identical between both species and that the plastids presented only two synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Moreover, the Illumina resequencing of additional accessions of V. microcarpum and V. oxycoccos revealed high genetic variation in both species. Based on these results, we provided a hypothesis involving the extension and dynamics of the last glaciation period in North America, and how this could have shaped the distribution and dispersal of V. microcarpum. Finally, we provided important data regarding the polyploid origin of V. oxycoccos.


April 21, 2020  |  

A hybrid de novo assembly of the sea pansy (Renilla muelleri) genome.

More than 3,000 species of octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) inhabit an expansive range of environments, from shallow tropical seas to the deep-ocean floor. They are important foundation species that create coral “forests,” which provide unique niches and 3-dimensional living space for other organisms. The octocoral genus Renilla inhabits sandy, continental shelves in the subtropical and tropical Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Renilla is especially interesting because it produces secondary metabolites for defense, exhibits bioluminescence, and produces a luciferase that is widely used in dual-reporter assays in molecular biology. Although several anthozoan genomes are currently available, the majority of these are hexacorals. Here, we present a de novo assembly of an azooxanthellate shallow-water octocoral, Renilla muelleri.We generated a hybrid de novo assembly using MaSuRCA v.3.2.6. The final assembly included 4,825 scaffolds and a haploid genome size of 172 megabases (Mb). A BUSCO assessment found 88% of metazoan orthologs present in the genome. An Augustus ab initio gene prediction found 23,660 genes, of which 66% (15,635) had detectable similarity to annotated genes from the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, or to the Uniprot database. Although the R. muelleri genome may be smaller (172 Mb minimum size) than other publicly available coral genomes (256-448 Mb), the R. muelleri genome is similar to other coral genomes in terms of the number of complete metazoan BUSCOs and predicted gene models.The R. muelleri hybrid genome provides a novel resource for researchers to investigate the evolution of genes and gene families within Octocorallia and more widely across Anthozoa. It will be a key resource for future comparative genomics with other corals and for understanding the genomic basis of coral diversity. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Candidate Gene Selection for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) through Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing.

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which is controlled by mitochondrial genes, is an important trait for commercial hybrid seed production. So far, genes controlling this trait are still not clear in pepper. In this study, complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the CMS line 138A and its maintainer line 138B. The genome size of 138A is 504,210 bp, which is 8618 bp shorter than that of 138B. Meanwhile, more than 214 and 215 open reading frames longer than 100 amino acids (aas) were identified in 138A and 138B, respectively. Mitochondrial genome structure of 138A was quite different from that of 138B, indicating the existence of recombination and rearrangement events. Based on the mitochondrial genome sequence and structure variations, mitochondrion of 138A and FS4401, a Korean origin CMS line, may have inherited from a common female ancestor, but their CMS traits did originate separately. Candidate gene selection was performed according to the published characteristics of the CMS genes, including the presence SNPs and InDels, located in unique regions, their chimeric structure, co-transcription, and transmembrane domain. A total of 35 ORFs were considered as potential candidate genes and 14 of these were selected, with orf300a and 0rf314a as strong candidates. A new marker, orf300a, was developed which did co-segregate with the CMS trait.


April 21, 2020  |  

Divergent evolution in the genomes of closely related lacertids, Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata, and implications for speciation.

Lacerta viridis and Lacerta bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades, respectively) that, until recently, were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed the first high-quality de novo genome assemblies for both L. viridis and L. bilineata through Illumina and PacBio sequencing, with annotation support provided from transcriptome sequencing of several tissues. To estimate gene flow between the two species and identify factors involved in reproductive isolation, we studied their evolutionary history, identified genomic rearrangements, detected signatures of selection on non-coding RNA, and on protein-coding genes.Here we show that gene flow was primarily unidirectional from L. bilineata to L. viridis after their split at least 1.15 million years ago. We detected positive selection of the non-coding repertoire; mutations in transcription factors; accumulation of divergence through inversions; selection on genes involved in neural development, reproduction, and behavior, as well as in ultraviolet-response, possibly driven by sexual selection, whose contribution to reproductive isolation between these lacertid species needs to be further evaluated.The combination of short and long sequence reads resulted in one of the most complete lizard genome assemblies. The characterization of a diverse array of genomic features provided valuable insights into the demographic history of divergence among European green lizards, as well as key species differences, some of which are candidates that could have played a role in speciation. In addition, our study generated valuable genomic resources that can be used to address conservation-related issues in lacertids. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole-genome sequence of the oriental lung fluke Paragonimus westermani.

Foodborne infections caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus are a significant and widespread public health problem in tropical areas. Approximately 50 Paragonimus species have been reported to infect animals and humans, but Paragonimus westermani is responsible for the bulk of human disease. Despite their medical and economic importance, no genome sequence for any Paragonimus species is available.We sequenced and assembled the genome of P. westermani, which is among the largest of the known pathogen genomes with an estimated size of 1.1 Gb. A 922.8 Mb genome assembly was generated from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequence data, covering 84% of the estimated genome size. The genome has a high proportion (45%) of repeat-derived DNA, particularly of the long interspersed element and long terminal repeat subtypes, and the expansion of these elements may explain some of the large size. We predicted 12,852 protein coding genes, showing a high level of conservation with related trematode species. The majority of proteins (80%) had homologs in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, with an average sequence identity of 64.1%. Assembly of the P. westermani mitochondrial genome from long PacBio reads resulted in a single high-quality circularized 20.6 kb contig. The contig harbored a 6.9 kb region of non-coding repetitive DNA comprised of three distinct repeat units. Our results suggest that the region is highly polymorphic in P. westermani, possibly even within single worm isolates.The generated assembly represents the first Paragonimus genome sequence and will facilitate future molecular studies of this important, but neglected, parasite group.


April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosome-level sequence assembly reveals the structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nd-1 genome and its gene set.

In addition to the BAC-based reference sequence of the accession Columbia-0 from the year 2000, several short read assemblies of THE plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were published during the last years. Also, a SMRT-based assembly of Landsberg erecta has been generated that identified translocation and inversion polymorphisms between two genotypes of the species. Here we provide a chromosome-arm level assembly of the A. thaliana accession Niederzenz-1 (AthNd-1_v2c) based on SMRT sequencing data. The best assembly comprises 69 nucleome sequences and displays a contig length of up to 16 Mbp. Compared to an earlier Illumina short read-based NGS assembly (AthNd-1_v1), a 75 fold increase in contiguity was observed for AthNd-1_v2c. To assign contig locations independent from the Col-0 gold standard reference sequence, we used genetic anchoring to generate a de novo assembly. In addition, we assembled the chondrome and plastome sequences. Detailed analyses of AthNd-1_v2c allowed reliable identification of large genomic rearrangements between A. thaliana accessions contributing to differences in the gene sets that distinguish the genotypes. One of the differences detected identified a gene that is lacking from the Col-0 gold standard sequence. This de novo assembly extends the known proportion of the A. thaliana pan-genome.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome Sequence of the Black Yeast Exophiala lecanii-corni.

The genome sequence of Exophiala lecanii-corni, a melanized dimorphic fungus with the capability of degrading several volatile organic compounds, was sequenced using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to assist with understanding the molecular basis of its uncommon morphological and metabolic characteristics. The assembled draft genome is presented here.


April 21, 2020  |  

Comprehensive evaluation of non-hybrid genome assembly tools for third-generation PacBio long-read sequence data.

Long reads obtained from third-generation sequencing platforms can help overcome the long-standing challenge of the de novo assembly of sequences for the genomic analysis of non-model eukaryotic organisms. Numerous long-read-aided de novo assemblies have been published recently, which exhibited superior quality of the assembled genomes in comparison with those achieved using earlier second-generation sequencing technologies. Evaluating assemblies is important in guiding the appropriate choice for specific research needs. In this study, we evaluated 10 long-read assemblers using a variety of metrics on Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) data sets from different taxonomic categories with considerable differences in genome size. The results allowed us to narrow down the list to a few assemblers that can be effectively applied to eukaryotic assembly projects. Moreover, we highlight how best to use limited genomic resources for effectively evaluating the genome assemblies of non-model organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Morphotypes of the common beadlet anemone Actinia equina (L.) are genetically distinct

Anemones of the genus Actinia are ecologically important and familiar organisms on many rocky shores. However, this genus is taxonomically problematical and prior evidence suggests that the North Atlantic beadlet anemone, Actinia equina, may actually consist of a number of cryptic species. Previous genetic work has been largely limited to allozyme electrophoresis and there remains a dearth of genetic resources with which to study this genus. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing may help to clarify the taxonomy of Actinia. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actinaria: Actiniidae) is shown to be 20,690?bp in length and to contain the standard complement of Cnidarian features including 13 protein coding genes, two rRNA genes, two tRNAs and two Group I introns, one with an in-frame truncated homing endonuclease gene open reading frame. However, amplification and sequencing of the standard mtDNA barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed only two haplotypes, differing by a single base pair, in widely geographically separated A. equina and its congener A. prasina. COI barcoding shows that whilst A. equina and A. prasina share the common mtDNA haplotype, haplotype frequency differed significantly between A. equina with red/orange pedal discs and those with green pedal discs, consistent with the hypothesis that these morphotypes represent incipient species.


April 21, 2020  |  

Inter-chromosomal coupling between vision and pigmentation genes during genomic divergence.

Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets-a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated through strong visually-based assortative mating. Using full-genome analysis, we identify four narrow genomic intervals that are consistently differentiated among sympatric species in a backdrop of extremely low genomic divergence. These four intervals include genes involved in pigmentation (sox10), axial patterning (hoxc13a), photoreceptor development (casz1) and visual sensitivity (SWS and LWS opsins) that develop islands of long-distance and inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium as species diverge. The relatively simple genomic architecture of species differences facilitates the evolution of linkage disequilibrium in the presence of gene flow.


April 21, 2020  |  

Do the toll-like receptors and complement systems play equally important roles in freshwater adapted Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma)?

Unlike the normal anadromous lifestyle, Chinese native Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) is locked in land and lives in fresh water lifetime. To explore the effect of freshwater adaption on its immune system, we constructed a pooled cDNA library of hepatopancreas and spleen of Chinese freshwater Dolly Varden char (S. malma). A total of 27,829 unigenes were generated from 31,233 high-quality transcripts and 17,670 complete open reading frames (ORF) were identified. Totally 25,809 unigenes were successfully annotated and it classified more native than adaptive immunity-associated genes, and more genes involved in toll-like receptor signal pathway than those in complement and coagulation cascades (51 vs 3), implying the relative more important role of toll-like receptors than the complement system under bacterial injection for the freshwater Dolly Varden char. These huge different numbers of TLR and complement system identified in freshwater Dolly Varden char probably caused by distinct evolution pressure patterns between fish TLR and complement system, representative by TLR3 and TLR5 as well as C4 and C6, respectively, which were under purifying and positively selecting pressure, respectively. Further seawater adaptation experiment and the comparison study with our library will no doubt be helpful to elucidate the effect of freshwater adaption of Chinese native Dolly Varden char on its immune system.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Mitochondrial DNA and their nuclear copies in the parasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum: A comparative analysis in Chalcidoidea.

Chalcidoidea (chalcidoid wasps) are an abundant and megadiverse insect group with both ecological and economical importance. Here we report a complete mitochondrial genome in Chalcidoidea from Pteromalus puparum (Pteromalidae). Eight tandem repeats followed by 6 reversed repeats were detected in its 3308?bp control region. This long and complex control region may explain failures of amplifying and sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes in some chalcidoids. In addition to 37 typical mitochondrial genes, an extra identical isoleucine tRNA (trnI) was detected at the opposite end of the control region. This recent mitochondrial gene duplication indicates that gene arrangements in chalcidoids are ongoing. A comparison among available chalcidoid mitochondrial genomes reveals rapid gene order rearrangements overall and high protein substitution rates in most chalcidoid taxa. In addition, we identified 24 nuclear sequences of mitochondrial origin (NUMTs) in P. puparum, summing up to 9989?bp, with 3617?bp of these NUMTs originating from mitochondrial coding regions. NUMTs abundance in P. puparum is only one-twelfth of that in its relative, Nasonia vitripennis. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we provide evidence that a faster nuclear degradation rate contributes to the reduced NUMT numbers in P. puparum. Overall, our study shows unusually high rates of mitochondrial evolution and considerable variation in NUMT accumulation in Chalcidoidea. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.


April 21, 2020  |  

Mitochondrial genome characterization of Melipona bicolor: Insights from the control region and gene expression data.

The stingless bee Melipona bicolor is the only bee in which true polygyny occurs. Its mitochondrial genome was first sequenced in 2008, but it was incomplete and no information about its transcription was known. We combined short and long reads of M. bicolor DNA with RNASeq data to obtain insights about mitochondrial evolution and gene expression in bees. The complete genome has 15,001?bp, including a control region of 255?bp that contains all conserved structures described in honeybees with the highest AT content reported so far for bees (98.1%), displaying a compact but functional region. Gene expression control is similar to other insects however unusual patterns of expression may suggest the existence of different isoforms for the mitochondrially encoded 12S rRNA. Results reveal unique and shared features of the mitochondrial genome in terms of sequence evolution and gene expression making M. bicolor an interesting model to study mitochondrial genomic evolution. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

A high-quality draft genome assembly of Sinella curviseta: A soil model organism (Collembola).

Sinella curviseta, among the most widespread springtails (Collembola) in Northern Hemisphere, has often been treated as a model organism in soil ecology and environmental toxicology. However, little information on its genetic knowledge severely hinders our understanding of its adaptations to the soil habitat. We present the largest genome assembly within Collembola using ~44.86?Gb (118X) of single-molecule real-time Pacific Bioscience Sequel sequencing. The final assembly of 599 scaffolds was ~381.46?Mb with a N50 length of 3.28?Mb, which captured 95.3% complete and 1.5% partial arthropod Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (n?=?1066). Transcripts and circularized mitochondrial genome were also assembled. We predicted 23,943 protein-coding genes, of which 83.88% were supported by transcriptome-based evidence and 82.49% matched protein records in UniProt. In addition, we also identified 222,501 repeats and 881 noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic reconstructions for Collembola support Tomoceridae sistered to the remaining Entomobryomorpha with the position of Symphypleona not fully resolved. Gene family evolution analyses identified 9,898 gene families, of which 156 experienced significant expansions or contractions. Our high-quality reference genome of S. curviseta provides the genetic basis for future investigations in evolutionary biology, soil ecology, and ecotoxicology. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


April 21, 2020  |  

Analysis of Chromosomal Numbers, Mitochondrial Genome, and Full-Length Transcriptome of Onychostoma brevibarba.

Onychostoma brevibarba is a new discovered species which is distributed in Xiang Jiang River of the middle Chang Jiang basin in Hunan Province, South China. In this study, the ploidy levels of O. brevibarba were confirmed by counting chromosomal numbers and analyzing karyotype. The complete mitochondrial genome of O. brevibarba was determined and analyzed. Besides, we firstly performed the full-length transcriptome of O. brevibarba derived from 5 different tissues using the PacBio SMRT sequencing. The result shows that O. brevibarba was a diploid with 48 chromosomes. The complete mitogenome of O. brevibarba was 16,602 bp in size and very similar (89.1-91.3%) to that of other Onychostoma species but was distinct from all congeners. The full-length transcriptome dataset of O. brevibarba comprised 120,239 unigenes. Among the unigenes, 91,542 were functionally annotated, whereas 26,794 were found to have two or more isoforms. This study could provide many new insights into cytology and molecular characteristics of O. brevibarba; it laid the foundation for further exploration of the genomic signatures of species of Onychostoma.


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