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Sunday, September 22, 2019

LSCplus: a fast solution for improving long read accuracy by short read alignment.

The single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing technology of Pacific Biosciences enables the acquisition of transcripts from end to end due to its ability to produce extraordinarily long reads (>10 kb). This new method of transcriptome sequencing has been applied to several projects on humans and model organisms. However, the raw data from SMRT sequencing are of relatively low quality, with a random error rate of approximately 15 %, for which error correction using next-generation sequencing (NGS) short reads is typically necessary. Few tools have been designed that apply a hybrid sequencing approach that combines NGS and SMRT data, and the most…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length transcriptome sequences and the identification of putative genes for flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower.

The flower of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the ability to improve cerebral blood flow. Flavonoids are the primary bioactive components in safflower, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Previous studies mostly used second-generation sequencing platforms to survey the putative flavonoid biosynthesis genes. For a better understanding of transcription data and the putative genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower, we carry our study.High-quality RNA was extracted from six types of safflower tissue. The RNAs of different tissues were mixed equally and used for multiple size-fractionated libraries (1-2, 2-3 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

De novo transcriptome assembly of the Chinese pearl barley, adlay, by full-length isoform and short-read RNA sequencing.

Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi) is a tropical grass that has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and is known for its nutritional benefits. Recent studies have shown that vitamin E compounds in adlay protect against chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. However, the molecular basis of adlay’s health benefits remains unknown. Here, we generated adlay gene sets by de novo transcriptome assembly using long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and short-read RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The gene sets obtained from Iso-seq and RNA-seq contained 31,177 genes and 57,901 genes, respectively. We confirmed the validity of the assembled gene sets by experimentally analyzing…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Global identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to phenolic acid biosynthetic genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing) of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and four alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long read reference genome-free reconstruction of a full-length transcriptome from Astragalus membranaceus reveals transcript variants involved in bioactive compound biosynthesis.

Astragalus membranaceus, also known as Huangqi in China, is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine formulations from Astragalus membranaceus have been used to treat a wide range of illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, nephritis and cancers. Pharmacological studies have shown that immunomodulating, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities exist in the extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Therefore, characterising the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in Astragalus membranaceus, such as Astragalosides, Calycosin and Calycosin-7-O-ß-d-glucoside, is of particular importance for further genetic studies of Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, we reconstructed the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin provides new insights into rubber biosynthesis

The Russian dandelion Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin (TKS), a member of the Composite family and a potential alternative source of natural rubber (NR) and inulin, is an ideal model system for studying rubber biosynthesis. Here we present the draft genome of TKS, the first assembled NR-producing weed plant. The draft TKS genome assembly has a length of 1.29 Gb, containing 46,731 predicted protein-coding genes and 68.56% repeats, in which the LTR-RT elements predominantly contribute to the genome enlargement. We analyzed the heterozygous regions/genes, suggesting its possible involvement in inbreeding depression. Through comparative studies between rubber-producing and non-rubber-producing plants, we found that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Induced salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass by a novel bacterium strain from the rhizosphere of a desert shrub Haloxylon ammodendron.

Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere ofH. ammodendronin Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China. In current work, the effects of M30-35 inoculation on salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass were evaluated and its genome was sequenced to identify genes associated with plant growth promotion. Results…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb.The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar “Chunpoong” were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of Artemisia annua provides insight into the evolution of Asteraceae family and artemisinin biosynthesis.

Artemisia annua, commonly known as sweet wormwood or Qinghao, is a shrub native to China and has long been used for medicinal purposes. A. annua is now cultivated globally as the only natural source of a potent anti-malarial compound, artemisinin. Here, we report a high-quality draft assembly of the 1.74-gigabase genome of A. annua, which is highly heterozygous, rich in repetitive sequences, and contains 63 226 protein-coding genes, one of the largest numbers among the sequenced plant species. We found that, as one of a few sequenced genomes in the Asteraceae, the A. annua genome contains a large number of genes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into nematicidal activity of a bacterial endophyte, Raoultella ornithinolytica MG against pine wilt nematode.

Pine wilt disease, caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating conifer diseases decimating several species of pine trees on a global scale. Here, we report the draft genome of Raoultella ornithinolytica MG, which is isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng plant as an bacterial endophyte and shows nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus. Our analysis of R. ornithinolytica MG genome showed that it possesses many genes encoding potential nematicidal factors in addition to some secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters that may contribute to the observed nematicidal activity of the strain. Furthermore, the genome was lacking key components of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Improved de novo genome assembly and analysis of the Chinese cucurbit Siraitia grosvenorii, also known as monk fruit or luo-han-guo.

Luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii), also called monk fruit, is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Monk fruit has become an important area for research because of the pharmacological and economic potential of its noncaloric, extremely sweet components (mogrosides). It is also commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of lung congestion, sore throat, and constipation. Recently, a single reference genome became available for monk fruit, assembled from 36.9x genome coverage reads via Illumina sequencing platforms. This genome assembly has a relatively short (34.2 kb) contig N50 length and lacks integrated annotations. These drawbacks make it difficult to use as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-quality assembly of the reference genome for scarlet sage, Salvia splendens, an economically important ornamental plant.

Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler, scarlet or tropical sage, is a tender herbaceous perennial widely introduced and seen in public gardens all over the world. With few molecular resources, breeding is still restricted to traditional phenotypic selection, and the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation remain unknown. Hence, a high-quality reference genome will be very valuable for marker-assisted breeding, genome editing, and molecular genetics.We generated 66 Gb and 37 Gb of raw DNA sequences, respectively, from whole-genome sequencing of a largely homozygous scarlet sage inbred line using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms. The PacBio de novo assembly yielded…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of the ancient tracheophyte Selaginella tamariscina reveals evolutionary features relevant to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance.

Resurrection plants, which are the “gifts” of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying the genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27 761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is an almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive Selaginella moellendorffii. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses highlight the unique…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sequencing of Panax notoginseng genome reveals genes involved in disease resistance and ginsenoside biosynthesis

Background: Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herb with high medicinal and economic value. There has been considerable research on the pharmacological activities of ginsenosides contained in Panax spp.; however, very little is known about the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Results: We reported the first de novo genome of 2.36 Gb of sequences from P. notoginseng with 35,451 protein-encoding genes. Compared to other plants, we found notable gene family contraction of disease-resistance genes in P. notoginseng, but notable expansion for several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamilies, such as the Gpdr subfamily, indicating that ABCs might be an additional mechanism for the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequencing and analysis of endophytic Sphingomonas sp. LK11 and its potential in plant growth.

Our study aimed to elucidate the plant growth-promoting characteristics and the structure and composition of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 genome using the single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology of Pacific Biosciences. The results revealed that LK11 produces different types of gibberellins (GAs) in pure culture and significantly improves soybean plant growth by influencing endogenous GAs compared with non-inoculated control plants. Detailed genomic analyses revealed that the Sphingomonas sp. LK11 genome consists of a circular chromosome (3.78 Mbp; 66.2% G+C content) and two circular plasmids (122,975 bps and 34,160 bps; 63 and 65% G+C content, respectively). Annotation showed that the LK11 genome…

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