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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.

Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete closed genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes A1 and A6, isolated from cattle.

Mannheimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present the first two complete closed genome sequences of this species, determined using an automated assembly pipeline requiring no manual finishing.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequences of two closely related bacteria, Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101 and Actinomyces denticolens DSM 20671(T).

Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101, isolated from an arthritic leg joint of a pig raised in Japan, is a bacterium closely related to Actinomyces denticolens Here, we deciphered the complete genome sequence of Actinomyces sp. Chiba101 and the high-quality draft genome sequence of A. denticolens DSM 20671(T). Copyright © 2017 Kanesaki et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Acquisition of virulence factors in livestock-associated MRSA: Lysogenic conversion of CC398 strains by virulence gene-containing phages.

Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. CC398 strains in livestock usually do not possess well-known virulence factors that can be frequently found in other MRSA sequence types (ST). Since many staphylococcal virulence genes are residing on the genomes of temperate phages, the question arises why livestock-associated (LA-) CC398 strains are only rarely infected by those phages. We isolated and characterized four temperate phages (P240, P282, P630 and P1105) containing genes of the immune evasion cluster (IEC) and/or for the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis strain 08M.

Mycoplasma bovis is a major bacterial pathogen that can cause respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. bovis strain 08M, isolated from a calf lung with pneumonia in China. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Zinc resistance within swine associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates in the USA is associated with MLST lineage.

Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is primarily mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V SCCmec element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of in feed zinc as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of MRSA in swine through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCCmec element in isolates obtained from pigs. In this study we report the prevalence of the czrC gene…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics of all three Campylobacter sputorum biovars and a novel cattle-associated C. sputorum clade.

Campylobacter sputorum is a non-thermotolerant campylobacter that is primarily isolated from food animals such as cattle and sheep. C. sputorum is also infrequently associated with human illness. Based on catalase and urease activity, three biovars are currently recognized within C. sputorum: bv. sputorum (catalase negative, urease negative), bv. fecalis (catalase positive, urease negative), and bv. paraureolyticus (catalase negative, urease positive). A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) method was recently constructed for C. sputorum. MLST typing of several cattle-associated C. sputorum isolates suggested that they are members of a divergent C. sputorum clade. Although catalase positive, and thus technically bv. fecalis, the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of NDM-5-positive extensively resistant Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows.

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of blaNDM-5 gene in Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cows and to characterize the molecular traits of the blaNDM-5-positive isolates. A total of 169 cows were sampled (169 feces and 169 raw milk samples) in three dairy farms in Jiangsu Province and 203 E. coli isolates were recovered. Among these strains, three isolates carried blaNDM-5 gene, including one co-harboring mcr-1, which belonged to sequence type 446 and the other two belonged to ST2. Susceptibility testing revealed that the three blaNDM-5-positive isolates showed extensive resistance to antimicrobials. The blaNDM-5 gene was…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular and genomic features of Mycobacterium bovis strain 1595 isolated from Korean cattle.

The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics and to conduct a comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium (M.) bovis strain 1595 isolated from a native Korean cow. Molecular typing showed that M. bovis 1595 has spoligotype SB0140 with mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats typing of 4-2-5-3-2-7-5-5-4-3-4-3-4-3, representing the most common type of M. bovis in Korea. The complete genome sequence of strain 1595 was determined by single-molecule real-time technology, which showed a genome of 4351712 bp in size with a 65.64% G + C content and 4358 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis with the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomic analysis identifies a Campylobacter clade deficient in selenium metabolism.

The nonthermotolerant Campylobacter species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. iguaniorum, and C. lanienae form a distinct phylogenetic cluster within the genus. These species are primarily isolated from foraging (swine) or grazing (e.g., cattle, sheep) animals and cause sporadic and infrequent human illness. Previous typing studies identified three putative novel C. lanienae-related taxa, based on either MLST or atpA sequence data. To further characterize these putative novel taxa and the C. fetus group as a whole, 76 genomes were sequenced, either to completion or to draft level. These genomes represent 26 C. lanienae strains and 50 strains of the three novel…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome sequence of two Rathayibacter toxicus strains reveals a tunicamycin biosynthetic cluster similar to Streptomyces chartreusis.

Rathayibacter toxicus is a forage grass associated Gram-positive bacterium of major concern to food safety and agriculture. This species is listed by USDA-APHIS as a plant pathogen select agent because it produces a tunicamycin-like toxin that is lethal to livestock and may be vectored by nematode species native to the U.S. The complete genomes of two strains of R. toxicus, including the type strain FH-79, were sequenced and analyzed in comparison with all available, complete R. toxicus genomes. Genome sizes ranged from 2,343,780 to 2,394,755 nucleotides, with 2079 to 2137 predicted open reading frames; all four strains showed remarkable synteny…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 5 isolate from the United States.

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) may be the largest MRSA reservoir outside the hospital setting. One concern with LA-MRSA is the acquisition of novel mobile genetic elements by these isolates. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a swine LA-MRSA sequence type 5 isolate from the United States.

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