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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina antarctica CGMCC 1.6503 T, a marine psychrophilic bacterium isolated from Antarctica

A marine psychrophilic bacterium _Paenisporosarcina antarctica_ CGMCC 1.6503T (= JCM 14646T) was isolated off King George Island, Antarctica (62°13’31? S 58°57’08? W). In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of _Paenisporosarcina antarctica_, which is comprised of 3,972,524?bp with a mean G?+?C content of 37.0%. By gene function and metabolic pathway analyses, studies showed that strain CGMCC 1.6503T encodes a series of genes related to cold adaptation, including encoding fatty acid desaturases, dioxygenases, antifreeze proteins and cold shock proteins, and possesses several two-component regulatory systems, which could assist this strain in responding to the cold stress, the oxygen stress…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Kocuria indica CE7, Isolated from Human Skin.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Kocuria indica CE7, isolated from human skin. This strain possesses a 2,809-kbp chromosome and a 32-kbp plasmid with 2,507 coding sequences. In particular, the genome contains multiple genes potentially involved in adaptations in pH homeostasis and salt tolerance.Copyright © 2019 Lee et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans: Molecular structures and comparative analysis.

Kaempferia galanga and Kaempferia elegans, which belong to the genus Kaempferia family Zingiberaceae, are used as valuable herbal medicine and ornamental plants, respectively. The chloroplast genomes have been used for molecular markers, species identification and phylogenetic studies. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of K. galanga and K. elegans are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genome of K. galanga is 163,811 bp long, having a quadripartite structure with large single copy (LSC) of 88,405 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 15,812 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 29,797 bp. Similarly, the complete chloroplast…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Effector gene reshuffling involves dispensable mini-chromosomes in the wheat blast fungus.

Newly emerged wheat blast disease is a serious threat to global wheat production. Wheat blast is caused by a distinct, exceptionally diverse lineage of the fungus causing rice blast disease. Through sequencing a recent field isolate, we report a reference genome that includes seven core chromosomes and mini-chromosome sequences that harbor effector genes normally found on ends of core chromosomes in other strains. No mini-chromosomes were observed in an early field strain, and at least two from another isolate each contain different effector genes and core chromosome end sequences. The mini-chromosome is enriched in transposons occurring most frequently at core…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comprehensive evaluation of non-hybrid genome assembly tools for third-generation PacBio long-read sequence data.

Long reads obtained from third-generation sequencing platforms can help overcome the long-standing challenge of the de novo assembly of sequences for the genomic analysis of non-model eukaryotic organisms. Numerous long-read-aided de novo assemblies have been published recently, which exhibited superior quality of the assembled genomes in comparison with those achieved using earlier second-generation sequencing technologies. Evaluating assemblies is important in guiding the appropriate choice for specific research needs. In this study, we evaluated 10 long-read assemblers using a variety of metrics on Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) data sets from different taxonomic categories with considerable differences in genome size. The results allowed…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Assembly of allele-aware, chromosomal-scale autopolyploid genomes based on Hi-C data.

Construction of chromosome-level assembly is a vital step in achieving the goal of a ‘Platinum’ genome, but it remains a major challenge to assemble and anchor sequences to chromosomes in autopolyploid or highly heterozygous genomes. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technology serves as a robust tool to dramatically advance chromosome scaffolding; however, existing approaches are mostly designed for diploid genomes and often with the aim of reconstructing a haploid representation, thereby having limited power to reconstruct chromosomes for autopolyploid genomes. We developed a novel algorithm (ALLHiC) that is capable of building allele-aware, chromosomal-scale assembly for autopolyploid genomes using Hi-C paired-end…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Tools and Strategies for Long-Read Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Plant Genomes.

The commercial release of third-generation sequencing technologies (TGSTs), giving long and ultra-long sequencing reads, has stimulated the development of new tools for assembling highly contiguous genome sequences with unprecedented accuracy across complex repeat regions. We survey here a wide range of emerging sequencing platforms and analytical tools for de novo assembly, provide background information for each of their steps, and discuss the spectrum of available options. Our decision tree recommends workflows for the generation of a high-quality genome assembly when used in combination with the specific needs and resources of a project.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Agricultural intensification reduces microbial network complexity and the abundance of keystone taxa in roots.

Root-associated microbes play a key role in plant performance and productivity, making them important players in agroecosystems. So far, very few studies have assessed the impact of different farming systems on the root microbiota and it is still unclear whether agricultural intensification influences the structure and complexity of microbial communities. We investigated the impact of conventional, no-till, and organic farming on wheat root fungal communities using PacBio SMRT sequencing on samples collected from 60 farmlands in Switzerland. Organic farming harbored a much more complex fungal network with significantly higher connectivity than conventional and no-till farming systems. The abundance of keystone…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese oil tree yellowhorn, Xanthoceras sorbifolium (Sapindales, Sapindaceae)

Xanthoceras sorbifolium is an important woody oil seed tree in North China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of X. sorbifolium was sequenced using Illumina Hiseq and PacBio sequencing technique. The mitogenome is 575,633bp in length and the GC content is 45.71%. The genome con- sists of 42 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal-RNA genes, and 24 transfer-RNA genes. Phylogenetic ana- lysis based on protein-coding genes showed that X. sorbifolium was close with the species in Bombacaceae and Malvaceae family.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Petunia-and Arabidopsis-Specific Root Microbiota Responses to Phosphate Supplementation

Phosphorus (P) is a limiting element for plant growth. Several root microbes, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have the capacity to improve plant nutrition and their abundance is known to depend on P fertility. However, how complex root-associated bacterial and fungal communities respond to various levels of P supplementation remains ill-defined. Here we investigated the responses of the root-associated bacteria and fungi to varying levels of P supply using 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing. We grew Petunia, which forms symbiosis with AMF, and the nonmycorrhizal model species Arabidopsis as a control in a soil that is…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete genome sequence of Thalassospira indica PB8BT insights into adaptation to the marine environment

Thalassospira indica PB8BT was isolated from the deep water of the Indian Ocean. Here we report the complete genome sequence of type strain PB8BT, which comprises 4,701,725?bp with a G?+?C content of 54.9?mol%. We found that numerous genes related to iron acquisition, resistance, motility and chemotaxis, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur metabolism, and stress response. These metabolic features and related genes revealed genetic basis for the adaptation to the marine environment. The genome of T. indica PB8BT will be helpful for further insights into its adaptive evolution and ecological role in marine environment.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome analysis and genetic transformation of a water surface-floating microalga Chlorococcum sp. FFG039.

Microalgal harvesting and dewatering are the main bottlenecks that need to be overcome to tap the potential of microalgae for production of valuable compounds. Water surface-floating microalgae form robust biofilms, float on the water surface along with gas bubbles entrapped under the biofilms, and have great potential to overcome these bottlenecks. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the water surface-floating phenotype. In the present study, we analysed the genome sequence of a water surface-floating microalga Chlorococcum sp. FFG039, with a next generation sequencing technique to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Comparative genomics study with Chlorococcum sp. FFG039…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Closing the Yield Gap for Cannabis: A Meta-Analysis of Factors Determining Cannabis Yield.

Until recently, the commercial production of Cannabis sativa was restricted to varieties that yielded high-quality fiber while producing low levels of the psychoactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In the last few years, a number of jurisdictions have legalized the production of medical and/or recreational cannabis with higher levels of THC, and other jurisdictions seem poised to follow suit. Consequently, demand for industrial-scale production of high yield cannabis with consistent cannabinoid profiles is expected to increase. In this paper we highlight that currently, projected annual production of cannabis is based largely on facility size, not yield per square meter. This meta-analysis of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Directed Repeats Co-occur with Few Short-Dispersed Repeats in Plastid Genome of a Spikemoss, Selaginella vardei (Selaginellaceae, Lycopodiopsida).

It is hypothesized that the highly conserved inverted repeats (IR) structure of land plant plastid genomes (plastomes) is beneficial for stabilizing plastome organization, whereas the mechanism of the occurrence and stability maintenance of the recently reported direct repeats (DR) structure is yet awaiting further exploration. Here we describe the DR structure of the Selaginella vardei (Selaginellaceae) plastome, to elucidate the mechanism of DR occurrence and stability maintenance.The plastome of S. vardei is 121,254 bp in length and encodes 76 genes, of which 62 encode proteins, 10 encode tRNAs, and four encode rRNAs. Unexpectedly, the two identical rRNA gene regions (13,893…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Analysis of genetic diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae populations in Taiwan.

Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a major rice disease. In Taiwan, the tropical indica type of Oryza sativa originally grown in this area is mix-cultivated with the temperate japonica type of O. sativa, and this might have led to adaptive changes of both rice host and Xoo isolates. In order to better understand how Xoo adapts to this unique environment, we collected and analyzed fifty-one Xoo isolates in Taiwan. Three different genetic marker systems consistently identified five groups. Among these groups, two of them had unique sequences in the last acquired ten spacers in…

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