April 21, 2020  |  

Koumiss consumption modulates gut microbiota, increases plasma high density cholesterol, decreases immunoglobulin G and albumin

Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has become a significant public health problem. In this study, PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology combined with a metabolomics study of koumiss revealed a series of changes in serum lipids, gut microbiota and viscera indices in hyperlipidemia patients 0, 30 and 60?days following daily koumiss treatment. High density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations significantly increased, while levels of immunoglobulin G and albumin significantly decreased after koumiss treatment. Moreover, the abundance of some Bacteroides, Dorea and Catenibacterium species increased, whereas the abundance of Clostridium and Citrobacter species decreased. Our results indicate that koumiss consumption alleviates the symptoms of hyperlipidemia. This is associated with both the bacterial composition of the koumiss, particularly Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species, and the metabolites present in koumiss, such as s-adenosyl-l-methionine, carnosine, lysophosphatidylinositol and dipeptides. This study provides insight into the mechanisms underpinning the effects of koumiss on hypolipidemic symptoms.

April 21, 2020  |  

A systematic review of the Trypanosoma cruzi genetic heterogeneity, host immune response and genetic factors as plausible drivers of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy.

Chagas disease is a complex tropical pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite displays massive genetic diversity and has been classified by international consensus in at least six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) that are broadly distributed in the American continent. The main clinical manifestation of the disease is the chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) that is lethal in the infected individuals. However, one intriguing feature is that only 30-40% of the infected individuals will develop CCC. Some authors have suggested that the immune response, host genetic factors, virulence factors and even the massive genetic heterogeneity of T. cruzi are responsible of this clinical pattern. To date, no conclusive data support the reason why a few percentages of the infected individuals will develop CCC. Therefore, we decided to conduct a systematic review analysing the host genetic factors, immune response, cytokine production, virulence factors and the plausible association of the parasite DTUs and CCC. The epidemiological and clinical implications are herein discussed.

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