Koumiss consumption modulates gut microbiota, increases plasma high density cholesterol, decreases immunoglobulin G and albumin
Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has become a significant public health problem. In this study, PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology combined with a metabolomics study of koumiss revealed a series of changes in serum lipids, gut microbiota and viscera indices in hyperlipidemia patients 0, 30 and 60?days following daily koumiss treatment. High density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations significantly increased, while levels of immunoglobulin G and albumin significantly decreased after koumiss treatment. Moreover, the abundance of some Bacteroides, Dorea and Catenibacterium species increased, whereas the abundance of Clostridium and Citrobacter species decreased. Our results indicate that koumiss consumption alleviates the symptoms of hyperlipidemia. This is associated with both the bacterial composition of the koumiss, particularly Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species, and the metabolites present in koumiss, such as s-adenosyl-l-methionine, carnosine, lysophosphatidylinositol and dipeptides. This study provides insight into the mechanisms underpinning the effects of koumiss on hypolipidemic symptoms.