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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Cichorium intybus L.?×?Cicerbita alpina Walbr.: doubled haploid chicory induction and CENH3 characterization

Intergeneric hybridization between industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and Cicerbita alpina Walbr. induces interspecific hybrids and haploid chicory plants after in vitro embryo rescue. The protocol yielded haploids in 5 out of 12 cultivars pollinated; altogether 18 haploids were regenerated from 2836 embryos, with a maximum efficiency of 1.96% haploids per cross. Obtained haploids were chromosome doubled with mitosis inhibitors trifluralin and oryzalin; exposure to 0.05 g L-1 oryzalin during one week was the most efficient treatment to regenerate doubled haploids. Inbreeding effects in vitro were limited, but the ploidy level affects morphology. Transcriptome sequencing revealed two unique copies of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of a male specific region containing a candidate sex determining gene in Atlantic cod.

The genetic mechanisms determining sex in teleost fishes are highly variable and the master sex determining gene has only been identified in few species. Here we characterize a male-specific region of 9?kb on linkage group 11 in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) harboring a single gene named zkY for zinc knuckle on the Y chromosome. Diagnostic PCR test of phenotypically sexed males and females confirm the sex-specific nature of the Y-sequence. We identified twelve highly similar autosomal gene copies of zkY, of which eight code for proteins containing the zinc knuckle motif. 3D modeling suggests that the amino acid changes observed…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Haplotype-aware diplotyping from noisy long reads.

Current genotyping approaches for single-nucleotide variations rely on short, accurate reads from second-generation sequencing devices. Presently, third-generation sequencing platforms are rapidly becoming more widespread, yet approaches for leveraging their long but error-prone reads for genotyping are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel statistical framework for the joint inference of haplotypes and genotypes from noisy long reads, which we term diplotyping. Our technique takes full advantage of linkage information provided by long reads. We validate hundreds of thousands of candidate variants that have not yet been included in the high-confidence reference set of the Genome-in-a-Bottle effort.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative Phylogenomics, a Stepping Stone for Bird Biodiversity Studies

Birds are a group with immense availability of genomic resources, and hundreds of forthcoming genomes at the doorstep. We review recent developments in whole genome sequencing, phylogenomics, and comparative genomics of birds. Short read based genome assemblies are common, largely due to efforts of the Bird 10K genome project (B10K). Chromosome-level assemblies are expected to increase due to improved long-read sequencing. The available genomic data has enabled the reconstruction of the bird tree of life with increasing confidence and resolution, but challenges remain in the early splits of Neoaves due to their explosive diversification after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) event. Continued…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Sequencing a Juglans regia?×?J. microcarpa hybrid yields high-quality genome assemblies of parental species.

Members of the genus Juglans are monecious wind-pollinated trees in the family Juglandaceae with highly heterozygous genomes, which greatly complicates genome sequence assembly. The genomes of interspecific hybrids are usually comprised of haploid genomes of parental species. We exploited this attribute of interspecific hybrids to avoid heterozygosity and sequenced an interspecific hybrid Juglans microcarpa?×?J. regia using a novel combination of single-molecule sequencing and optical genome mapping technologies. The resulting assemblies of both genomes were remarkably complete including chromosome termini and centromere regions. Chromosome termini consisted of arrays of telomeric repeats about 8?kb long and heterochromatic subtelomeric regions about 10?kb long.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome plasticity favours double chromosomal Tn4401b-blaKPC-2 transposon insertion in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 clone.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 235 is a clone that possesses an extraordinary ability to acquire mobile genetic elements and has been associated with the spread of resistance genes, including genes that encode for carbapenemases. Here, we aim to characterize the genetic platforms involved in resistance dissemination in blaKPC-2-positive P. aeruginosa ST235 in Colombia.In a prospective surveillance study of infections in adult patients attended in five ICUs in five distant cities in Colombia, 58 isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered, of which, 27 (46.6%) were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular analysis showed that 6 (22.2%) and 4 (14.8%) isolates harboured the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of Populus section Leuce using complete chloroplast genome sequences

Species of Populus section Leuce are distributed throughout most parts of the Northern Hemisphere and have important economic and ecological significance. However, due to frequent hybridization within Leuce, the phylogenetic relationship between species has not been clarified. The chloroplast (cp) genome is characterized by maternal inheritance and relatively conservative mutation rates; thus, it is a powerful tool for building phylogenetic trees. In this study, we used the PacBio SEQUEL software to determine that the cp genome of Populus tomentosa has a length of 156,558 bp including a long single-copy region (84,717 bp), a small single-copy region (16,555 bp), and a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Differential retention of transposable element-derived sequences in outcrossing Arabidopsis genomes.

Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic parasites with major impacts on host genome architecture and host adaptation. A proper evaluation of their evolutionary significance has been hampered by the paucity of short scale phylogenetic comparisons between closely related species. Here, we characterized the dynamics of TE accumulation at the micro-evolutionary scale by comparing two closely related plant species, Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri.Joint genome annotation in these two outcrossing species confirmed that both contain two distinct populations of TEs with either ‘recent’ or ‘old’ insertion histories. Identification of rare segregating insertions suggests that diverse TE families contribute to the ongoing dynamics…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A comparative evaluation of hybrid error correction methods for error-prone long reads.

Third-generation sequencing technologies have advanced the progress of the biological research by generating reads that are substantially longer than second-generation sequencing technologies. However, their notorious high error rate impedes straightforward data analysis and limits their application. A handful of error correction methods for these error-prone long reads have been developed to date. The output data quality is very important for downstream analysis, whereas computing resources could limit the utility of some computing-intense tools. There is a lack of standardized assessments for these long-read error-correction methods.Here, we present a comparative performance assessment of ten state-of-the-art error-correction methods for long reads. We…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Sequences of Multiple-Drug Resistant IncHI2 ST3 Plasmids in Escherichia coli of Porcine Origin in Australia

IncHI2 ST3 plasmids are known carriers of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Complete plasmid sequences from multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli circulating in Australian swine is however limited. Here we sequenced two related IncHI2 ST3 plasmids, pSDE-SvHI2 and pSDC-F2_12BHI2, from phylogenetically unrelated multiple-drug resistant Escherichia coli strains SvETEC (CC23:O157:H19) and F2_12B (ST93:O7:H4) from geographically disparate pig production operations in New South Wales, Australia. Unicycler was used to co-assemble short read (Illumina) and long read (PacBio SMRT) nucleotide sequence data. The plasmids encoded three drug-resistance loci, two of which carried class 1 integrons. One integron, hosting drfA12-orfF-aadA2, was within a hybrid Tn1721/21,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

CAMISIM: simulating metagenomes and microbial communities.

Shotgun metagenome data sets of microbial communities are highly diverse, not only due to the natural variation of the underlying biological systems, but also due to differences in laboratory protocols, replicate numbers, and sequencing technologies. Accordingly, to effectively assess the performance of metagenomic analysis software, a wide range of benchmark data sets are required.We describe the CAMISIM microbial community and metagenome simulator. The software can model different microbial abundance profiles, multi-sample time series, and differential abundance studies, includes real and simulated strain-level diversity, and generates second- and third-generation sequencing data from taxonomic profiles or de novo. Gold standards are created…

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