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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP3, a lactic acid bacterium found in the Drosophila melanogaster gut

Enterococcus durans Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP3 was isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome is composed of a single circular genome of 2,983,334 bp, with a G+C content of 38%, and a single plasmid of 5,594 bp. Copyright © 2017 Wan et al.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequences of two human oral microbiome commensals, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 and S. salivarius ATCC 27945.

Streptococcus salivarius strains are significant contributors to the human oral microbiome. Some possess unique fimbriae that give them the ability to coaggregate and colonize particular oral structures. We present here the complete genomes of Streptococcus salivarius Lancefield K(-)/K(+) strains ATCC 25975 and ATCC 27945, which can and cannot, respectively, produce fimbriae. Copyright © 2017 Butler et al.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene macrolactam sceliphrolactam in a Streptomyces strain isolated from mangrove sediment.

Streptomyces are a genus of Actinobacteria capable of producing structurally diverse natural products. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a biosynthetically talented Streptomyces (Streptomyces sp. SD85) from tropical mangrove sediments. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that Streptomyces sp. SD85 harbors at least 52 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which constitute 21.2% of the 8.6-Mb genome. When cultivated under lab conditions, Streptomyces sp. SD85 produces sceliphrolactam, a 26-membered polyene macrolactam with unknown biosynthetic origin. Genome mining yielded a putative sceliphrolactam BGC (sce) that encodes a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) system, several ß-amino acid starter biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and transcriptional regulators.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative mapping of the ASTRINGENCY locus controlling fruit astringency in hexaploid persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) with the diploid D. lotus reference genome

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a tree crop species that originated in East Asia, consists mainly of hexaploid individuals (2n = 6x = 90) with some nonaploid individuals. One of the unique characteristics of persimmon is the continuous accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in its fruit until the middle of fruit development, resulting in a strong astringent taste even at commercial fruit maturity. Among persimmon cultivars, pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) types cease PA accumulation in early fruit development and become non-astringent at commercial maturity. PCNA is an allelic trait to non-PCNA and is controlled by a single locus called the ASTRINGENCY (AST)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unusual genomic traits suggest Methylocystis bryophila S285 to be well adapted for life in peatlands.

The genus Methylocystis belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria, the family Methylocystaceae, and encompasses aerobic methanotrophic bacteria with the serine pathway of carbon assimilation. All Methylocystis species are able to fix dinitrogen and several members of this genus are also capable of using acetate or ethanol in the absence of methane, which explains their wide distribution in various habitats. One additional trait that enables their survival in the environment is possession of two methane-oxidizing isozymes, the conventional particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) with low-affinity to substrate (pMMO1) and the high-affinity enzyme (pMMO2). Here, we report the finished genome sequence of Methylocystis bryophila…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Acquisition of resistance to carbapenem and macrolide-mediated quorum sensing inhibition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa via ICE Tn4371 6385

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. The first-line agents to treat P. aeruginosa infections are carbapenems. However, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains greatly compromised the effec- tiveness of carbapenem treatment, which makes the surveillance on their spreading and transmission important. Here we characterized the full-length genomes of two carbapenem- resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that are capable of producing New Delhi metallo-ß- lactamase-1 (NDM-1). We show that blaNDM-1 is carried by a novel integrative and conjugative element (ICE) ICETn43716385, which also carries the macrolide resistance gene msr(E) and the florfenicol resistance gene floR. By exogenously…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of a novel multidrug resistance plasmid pSGB23 isolated from Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul.

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul (S. Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored. In this study, we sequenced and fully characterized an S. enterica MDR plasmid pSGB23 isolated from chicken.Complete genome sequence analysis revealed that S.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reprogramming of the antimycin NRPS-PKS assembly lines inspired by gene evolution.

Reprogramming of the NRPS/PKS assembly line is an attractive method for the production of new bioactive molecules. However, it is usually hampered by the loss of intimate domain/module interactions required for the precise control of chain transfer and elongation reactions. In this study, we first establish heterologous expression systems of the unique antimycin-type cyclic depsipeptides: JBIR-06 (tri-lactone) and neoantimycin (tetra-lactone), and engineer their biosyntheses by taking advantage of bioinformatic analyses and evolutionary insights. As a result, we successfully accomplish three manipulations: (i) ring contraction of neoantimycin (from tetra-lactone to tri-lactone), (ii) ring expansion of JBIR-06 (from tri-lactone to tetra-lactone), and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Coculture of marine Streptomyces sp. with Bacillus sp. produces a newpiperazic acid-bearing cyclic peptide.

Microbial culture conditions in the laboratory, which conventionally involve the cultivation of one strain in one culture vessel, are vastly different from natural microbial environments. Even though perfectly mimicking natural microbial interactions is virtually impossible, the cocultivation of multiple microbial strains is a reasonable strategy to induce the production of secondary metabolites, which enables the discovery of new bioactive natural products. Our coculture of marine Streptomyces and Bacillus strains isolated together from an intertidal mudflat led to discover a new metabolite, dentigerumycin E (1). Dentigerumycin E was determined to be a new cyclic hexapeptide incorporating three piperazic acids, N-OH-Thr, N-OH-Gly,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A strain of an emerging Indian Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathotype defeats the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 without inducing a clade III SWEET gene and is nearly identical to a recent Thai isolate.

The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) injects transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) that bind and activate host “susceptibility” (S) genes important for disease. Clade III SWEET genes are major S genes for bacterial blight. The resistance genes xa5, which reduces TALE activity generally, and xa13, a SWEET11 allele not recognized by the cognate TALE, have been effectively deployed. However, strains that defeat both resistance genes individually were recently reported in India and Thailand. To gain insight into the mechanism(s), we completely sequenced the genome of one such strain from each country and examined the encoded TALEs. Strikingly,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of the actinoplanic acid pathway in Streptomyces rapamycinicus reveals a genetically conserved synergism with rapamycin.

Actinobacteria possess a great wealth of pathways for production of bioactive compounds. Following advances in genome mining, dozens of natural product (NP) gene clusters are routinely found in each actinobacterial genome; however, the modus operandi of this large arsenal is poorly understood. During investigations of the secondary metabolome of Streptomyces rapamycinicus, the producer of rapamycin, we observed accumulation of two compounds never before reported from this organism. Structural elucidation revealed actinoplanic acid A and its demethyl analogue. Actinoplanic acids (APLs) are potent inhibitors of Ras farnesyltransferase and therefore represent bioactive compounds of medicinal interest. Supported with the unique structure of…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Functional analysis of the first complete genome sequence of a multidrug resistant sequence type 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a significant opportunistic pathogen of humans. The ST2 lineage is frequently multidrug resistant and accounts for most of the clinical disease worldwide. However, there are no publically available, closed ST2 genomes and pathogenesis studies have not focused on these strains. We report the complete genome and methylome of BPH0662, a multidrug resistant, hospital adapted, ST2 S. epidermidis, and describe the correlation between resistome and phenotype, as well as demonstrate its relationship to publically available, international ST2 isolates. Furthermore, we delineate the methylome determined by the two type I restriction modification systems present in BPH0662 through heterologous expression…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Preparation of next-generation DNA sequencing libraries from ultra-low amounts of input DNA: Application to single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences RS II.

We have developed and validated an amplification-free method for generating DNA sequencing libraries from very low amounts of input DNA (500 picograms – 20 nanograms) for single- molecule sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II sequencer. The common challenge of high input requirements for single-molecule sequencing is overcome by using a carrier DNA in conjunction with optimized sequencing preparation conditions and re-use of the MagBead-bound complex. Here we describe how this method can be used to produce sequencing yields comparable to those generated from standard input amounts, but by using 1000-fold less starting material.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single molecule sequencing and genome assembly of a clinical specimen of Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis.

More than 20% of the world’s population is at risk for infection by filarial nematodes and >180 million people worldwide are already infected. Along with infection comes significant morbidity that has a socioeconomic impact. The eight filarial nematodes that infect humans are Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca, and Mansonella ozzardi, of which three have published draft genome sequences. Since all have humans as the definitive host, standard avenues of research that rely on culturing and genetics have often not been possible. Therefore, genome sequencing provides an important window into understanding the…

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