April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles synthesizing bacterium isolated from Arctic Ocean sediments

Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesizing bacterium, was isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment. Here we describe the complete genome of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13. The complete genome contains 4,040,012?bp with 66.66?mol%?G?+?C content, including one circular chromosome of 3,231,929?bp (67.45?mol%?G?+?C content), and eight plasmids with length ranging from 24,536?bp to 199,685?bp. The genome contains 3835 protein-coding genes (CDSs), 49 tRNA genes, as well as 3 rRNA operons as 16S-23S-5S rRNA. Based on the gene annotation and Swiss-Prot analysis, a total of 15 genes belonging to 11 kinds, including silver exporting P-type ATPase (SilP), alkaline phosphatase, nitroreductase, thioredoxin reductase, NADPH dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, might be related to the synthesis of AgNPs. Meanwhile, many additional genes associated with synthesis of AgNPs such as protein-disulfide isomerase, c-type cytochrome, glutathione synthase and dehydrogenase reductase were also identified.

April 21, 2020  |  

Integrative functional genomics decodes herpes simplex virus 1

Since the genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) was first sequenced more than 30 years ago, its predicted 80 genes have been intensively studied. Here, we unravel the complete viral transcriptome and translatome during lytic infection with base-pair resolution by computational integration of multi-omics data. We identified a total of 201 viral transcripts and 284 open reading frames (ORFs) including all known and 46 novel large ORFs. Multiple transcript isoforms expressed from individual gene loci explain translation of the vast majority of novel viral ORFs as well as N-terminal extensions (NTEs) and truncations thereof. We show that key viral regulators and structural proteins possess NTEs, which initiate from non-canonical start codons and govern subcellular protein localization and packaging. We validated a novel non-canonical large spliced ORF in the ICP0 locus and identified a 93 aa ORF overlapping ICP34.5 that is thus also deleted in the FDA-approved oncolytic virus Imlygic. Finally, we extend the current nomenclature to include all novel viral gene products. Taken together, this work provides a valuable resource for future functional studies, vaccine design and oncolytic therapies.

April 21, 2020  |  

Multiple Long-read Sequencing Survey of Herpes Simplex Virus Lytic Transcriptome

Long-read sequencing (LRS) has become increasingly important in RNA research due to its strength in resolving complex transcriptomic architectures. In this regard, currently two LRS platforms have demonstrated adequate performance: the Single Molecule Real-Time Sequencing by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and the nanopore sequencing by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). Even though these techniques produce lower coverage and are more error prone than short-read sequencing, they continue to be more successful in identifying transcript isoforms including polycistronic and multi-spliced RNA molecules, as well as transcript overlaps. Recent reports have successfully applied LRS for the investigation of the transcriptome of viruses belonging to various families. These studies have substantially increased the number of previously known viral RNA molecules. In this work, we used the Sequel and MinION technique from PacBio and ONT, respectively, to characterize the lytic transcriptome of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In most samples, we analyzed the poly(A) fraction of the transcriptome, but we also performed random oligonucleotide-based sequencing. Besides cDNA sequencing, we also carried out native RNA sequencing. Our investigations identified more than 160 previously undetected transcripts, including coding and non-coding RNAs, multi-splice transcripts, as well as polycistronic and complex transcripts. Furthermore, we determined previously unsubstantiated transcriptional start sites, polyadenylation sites, and splice sites. A large number of novel transcriptional overlaps were also detected. Random-primed sequencing revealed that each convergent gene pair produces non-polyadenylated read-through RNAs overlapping the partner genes. Furthermore, we identified novel replication-associated transcripts overlapping the HSV-1 replication origins, and novel LAT variants with very long 5’ regions, which are co-terminal with the LAT-0.7kb transcript. Overall, our results demonstrated that the HSV-1 transcripts form an extremely complex pattern of overlaps, and that entire viral genome is transcriptionally active. In most viral genes, if not in all, both DNA strands are expressed.

April 21, 2020  |  

Gammaherpesvirus Readthrough Transcription Generates a Long Non-Coding RNA That Is Regulated by Antisense miRNAs and Correlates with Enhanced Lytic Replication In Vivo.

Gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogens Epstein?Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are oncogenic viruses that establish lifelong infections in hosts and are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that the majority of the mammalian genome is transcribed and gives rise to numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Likewise, the large double-stranded DNA virus genomes of herpesviruses undergo pervasive transcription, including the expression of many as yet uncharacterized lncRNAs. Murine gammaperherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, MuHV-4, ?HV68) is a natural pathogen of rodents, and is genetically and pathogenically related to EBV and KSHV, providing a highly tractable model for studies of gammaherpesvirus biology and pathogenesis. Through the integrated use of parallel data sets from multiple sequencing platforms, we previously resolved transcripts throughout the MHV68 genome, including at least 144 novel transcript isoforms. Here, we sought to molecularly validate novel transcripts identified within the M3/M2 locus, which harbors genes that code for the chemokine binding protein M3, the latency B cell signaling protein M2, and 10 microRNAs (miRNAs). Using strand-specific northern blots, we validated the presence of M3-04, a 3.91 kb polyadenylated transcript that initiates at the M3 transcription start site and reads through the M3 open reading frame (ORF), the M3 poly(a) signal sequence, and the M2 ORF. This unexpected transcript was solely localized to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that it is not translated and instead may function as a lncRNA. Use of an MHV68 mutant lacking two M3-04-antisense pre-miRNA stem loops resulted in highly increased expression of M3-04 and increased virus replication in the lungs of infected mice, demonstrating a key role for these RNAs in regulation of lytic infection. Together these findings suggest the possibility of a tripartite regulatory relationship between the lncRNA M3-04, antisense miRNAs, and the latency gene M2.

April 21, 2020  |  

Analysis of the Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel, Pseudorabies Virus Strain Isolated in Southeast Europe.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is the causative agent of Aujeszky’s disease giving rise to significant economic losses worldwide. Many countries have implemented national programs for the eradication of this virus. In this study, long-read sequencing was used to determine the nucleotide sequence of the genome of a novel PRV strain (PRV-MdBio) isolated in Serbia.In this study, a novel PRV strain was isolated and characterized. PRV-MdBio was found to exhibit similar growth properties to those of another wild-type PRV, the strain Kaplan. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has revealed that the new strain differs significantly in base composition even from strain Kaplan, to which it otherwise exhibits the highest similarity. We compared the genetic composition of PRV-MdBio to strain Kaplan and the China reference strain Ea and obtained that radical base replacements were the most common point mutations preceding conservative and silent mutations. We also found that the adaptation of PRV to cell culture does not lead to any tendentious genetic alteration in the viral genome.PRV-MdBio is a wild-type virus, which differs in base composition from other PRV strains to a relatively large extent.

April 21, 2020  |  

Linking CRISPR-Cas9 interference in cassava to the evolution of editing-resistant geminiviruses.

Geminiviruses cause damaging diseases in several important crop species. However, limited progress has been made in developing crop varieties resistant to these highly diverse DNA viruses. Recently, the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system has been transferred to plants to target and confer immunity to geminiviruses. In this study, we use CRISPR-Cas9 interference in the staple food crop cassava with the aim of engineering resistance to African cassava mosaic virus, a member of a widespread and important family (Geminiviridae) of plant-pathogenic DNA viruses.Our results show that the CRISPR system fails to confer effective resistance to the virus during glasshouse inoculations. Further, we find that between 33 and 48% of edited virus genomes evolve a conserved single-nucleotide mutation that confers resistance to CRISPR-Cas9 cleavage. We also find that in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana the replication of the novel, mutant virus is dependent on the presence of the wild-type virus.Our study highlights the risks associated with CRISPR-Cas9 virus immunity in eukaryotes given that the mutagenic nature of the system generates viral escapes in a short time period. Our in-depth analysis of virus populations also represents a template for future studies analyzing virus escape from anti-viral CRISPR transgenics. This is especially important for informing regulation of such actively mutagenic applications of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in agriculture.

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