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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insights into the microbiota of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) with tenacibaculosis symptoms and description of sp. nov. Tenacibaculum singaporense

Outbreaks of diseases in farmed fish remain a recurring problem despite the development of vaccines and improved hygiene standards on aquaculture farms. One commonly observed bacterial disease in tropical aquaculture of the South-East Asian region is tenacibaculosis, which is attributed to members of the Bacteroidetes genus Tenacibaculum, most notably T. maritimum. The impact of tenacibaculosis on fish microbiota remains poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the microbiota of different tissue types of commercially reared Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) that showed symptoms of tenacibaculosis and compared the microbial communities to those of healthy and experimentally infected fish that were exposed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Acquired interbacterial defense systems protect against interspecies antagonism in the human gut microbiome

The genomes of bacteria derived from the gut microbiota are replete with pathways that mediate contact-dependent interbacterial antagonism. However, the role of direct interactions between co-resident microbes in driving microbiome composition is not well understood. Here we report the widespread occurrence of acquired interbacterial defense (AID) gene clusters in the human gut microbiome. These clusters are found on predicted mobile elements and encode arrays of immunity genes that confer protection against interbacterial toxin-mediated antagonism in vitro and in gnotobiotic mice. We find that Bacteroides ovatus strains containing AID systems that inactivate B. fragilis toxins delivered between cells by the type…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii genomes shows a high level of genome plasticity and warrants separation into new species-level taxa.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a ubiquitous member of the human gut microbiome, constituting up to 15% of the total bacteria in the human gut. Substantial evidence connects decreased levels of F. prausnitzii with the onset and progression of certain forms of inflammatory bowel disease, which has been attributed to its anti-inflammatory potential. Two phylogroups of F. prausnitzii have been identified, with a decrease in phylogroup I being a more sensitive marker of intestinal inflammation. Much of the genomic and physiological data available to date was collected using phylogroup II strains. Little analysis of F. prausnitzii genomes has been performed so far…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The phylogenomic diversity of herbivore- associated Fibrobacter spp. is correlated to lignocellulose-degrading potential.

Members of the genus Fibrobacter are cellulose-degrading bacteria and common constituents of the gastrointestinal microbiota of herbivores. Although considerable phylogenetic diversity is observed among members of this group, few functional differences explaining the distinct ecological distributions of specific phylotypes have been described. In this study, we sequenced and performed a comparative analysis of whole genomes from 38 novel Fibrobacter strains against the type strains for the two formally described Fibrobacter species F. succinogenes strain S85 and F. intestinalis strain NR9. Significant differences in the number of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation were observed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii 456, resists acid and can persist in the human gut beyond the initial ingestion period.

Probiotics are considered to have multiple beneficial effects on the human gastrointestinal tract, including immunomodulation, pathogen inhibition, and improved host nutrient metabolism. However, extensive characterization of these properties is needed to define suitable clinical applications for probiotic candidates. Lactobacillus johnsonii 456 (LBJ 456) was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-genotoxic effects in a mouse model. Here, we characterize its resistance to gastric and bile acids as well as its ability to inhibit gut pathogens and adhere to host mucosa. While bile resistance and in vitro host attachment properties of LBJ 456 were comparable to other tested probiotics, LBJ 456…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Description of Schaedlerella arabinophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a D-arabinose utilizing bacterium isolated from feces of C57BL/6J mice and a close relative of Clostridium sp. ASF 502

The use of gnotobiotics has gained large interest in recent years due to technological advances that have revealed the importance of host-associated microbiomes for host physiology and health. One of the oldest and most important gnotobiotics mouse model, the Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF) has been used for several decades. ASF comprises eight different bacterial species, which have been characterized to different extent, but only few are available through public strain collections. Here, the isolation of a close relative to one of the less studied ASF strains, Clostridium sp. ASF 502, is reported. Isolate TLL-A1, which shares 99.6% 16S rRNA gene…

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