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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome mining and predictive functional profiling of acidophilic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pt14.

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pt14 is a non-pathogenic and acidophilic bacterium isolated from acidic soil (pH 4.65). Genome sequencing of strain Pt14 was performed using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing to get insights into unique existence of this strain in acidic environment. Complete genome sequence of this strain revealed a chromosome of 5,841,722 bp having 5354 CDSs and 88 RNAs. Phylogenomic reconstruction based on 16S rRNA gene, Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) values and marker proteins revealed that strain Pt14 shared a common clade with P. fluorescens strain A506 and strain SS101. ANI value of strain Pt14 in relation to strain A506 was…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Plasmid composition in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida 01-B526 unravels unsuspected type three secretion system loss patterns.

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a ubiquitous psychrophilic waterborne bacterium and a fish pathogen. The numerous mobile elements, especially insertion sequences (IS), in its genome promote rearrangements that impact its phenotype. One of the main virulence factors of this bacterium, its type three secretion system (TTSS), is affected by these rearrangements. In Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida most of the TTSS genes are encoded in a single locus on a large plasmid called pAsa5, and may be lost when the bacterium is cultivated at a higher temperature (25 °C), producing non-virulent mutants. In a previous study, pAsa5-rearranged strains that lacked the TTSS…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Unravelling the complete genome of Archangium gephyra DSM 2261T and evolutionary insights into myxobacterial chitinases.

Family Cystobacteraceae is a group of eubacteria within order Myxococcales and class Deltaproteobacteria that includes more than 20 species belonging to 6 genera, that is, Angiococcus, Archangium, Cystobacter, Hyalangium, Melittangium, and Stigmatella. Earlier these members have been classified based on chitin degrading efficiency such as Cystobacter fuscus and Stigmatella aurantiaca, which are efficient chitin degraders, C. violaceus a partial chitin degrader and Archangium gephyra a chitin nondegrader. Here we report the 12.5 Mbp complete genome of A. gephyra DSM 2261T and compare it with four available genomes within the family Cystobacteraceae. Phylogeny and DNA-DNA hybridization studies reveal that A. gephyra…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome analysis of Thermus parvatiensis and comparative genomics of Thermus spp. provide insights into genetic variability and evolution of natural competence as strategic survival attributes.

Thermophilic environments represent an interesting niche. Among thermophiles, the genus Thermus is among the most studied genera. In this study, we have sequenced the genome of Thermus parvatiensis strain RL, a thermophile isolated from Himalayan hot water springs (temperature >96°C) using PacBio RSII SMRT technique. The small genome (2.01 Mbp) comprises a chromosome (1.87 Mbp) and a plasmid (143 Kbp), designated in this study as pTP143. Annotation revealed a high number of repair genes, a squeezed genome but containing highly plastic plasmid with transposases, integrases, mobile elements and hypothetical proteins (44%). We performed a comparative genomic study of the group…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Generality of toxins in defensive symbiosis: Ribosome-inactivating proteins and defense against parasitic wasps in Drosophila.

While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea. Here we test the generality of RIP-mediated protection by examining whether Spiroplasma RIPs also play a role…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of the plant pathogen Streptomyces sp. strain 11-1-2.

Streptomyces sp. strain 11-1-2 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium that was isolated from a common scab lesion on a potato tuber. The strain is highly pathogenic to plants but does not produce the virulence-associated Streptomyces phytotoxin thaxtomin A. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. 11-1-2. Copyright © 2017 Bown and Bignell.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequences for multiple Clavibacter strains from different subspecies.

The Gram-positive genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting a variety of agricultural crops, such as potato, tomato, corn, barley, etc. Here, we report five new genome sequences, those of strains CFIA-Cs3N, CFIA-CsR14, LMG 3663(T), LMG 7333(T), and ATCC 33566(T), from different subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis All these genomic data will be used for reclassification and niche-adapted feature comparisons.© Crown copyright 2017.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evaluation of oritavancin dosing strategies against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates with or without reduced susceptibility to daptomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

Clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm although its safety and efficacy in treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chromosome level assembly and secondary metabolite potential of the parasitic fungus Cordyceps militaris.

Cordyceps militaris is an insect pathogenic fungus that is prized for its use in traditional medicine. This and other entomopathogenic fungi are understudied sources for the discovery of new bioactive molecules. In this study, PacBio SMRT long read sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of C. militaris with a focus on the genetic potential for secondary metabolite production in the genome assembly of this fungus.This is first chromosome level assembly of a species in the Cordyceps genera. In this seven chromosome assembly of 33.6 Mba there were 9371 genes identified. Cordyceps militaris was determined to have the MAT…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Study of mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida A527 strain sheds light on the species’ lifestyles and taxonomic dilemma.

The Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida contains five subspecies: salmonicida, smithia, achromogenes, masoucida and pectinolytica. Pectinolytica is a mesophilic subspecies with the ability to thrive at a wide range of temperatures, including 37°C, while the four other subspecies are psychrophilic, restricted to lower temperatures. The psychrophilic subspecies are known to infect a wide range of fishes. However, there is no evidence of pathogenicity for the mesophilic subspecies pectinolytica. Study of the differences between the mesophilic and psychrophilic subspecies is hampered by the lack of completely sequenced and closed genomes from the mesophilic subspecies. A previous study reported that insertion sequences, which…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus disease caused by strains of uncommon emm types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, two years after a country-wide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008-2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated in 2011-2013 from iGAS infections, and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome data to investigate…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Clonal Complex 17 group B Streptococcus strains causing invasive disease in neonates and adults originate from the same genetic pool.

A significant proportion of group B Streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease, particularly late-onset disease, is associated with strains of serotype III, clonal complex (CC) 17. CC17 strains also cause invasive infections in adults. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of isolates recovered from neonatal and adult CC17 invasive infections. We performed whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of 93 temporally and geographically matched CC17 strains isolated from both neonatal and adult invasive infections in the metropolitan region of Toronto/Peel, Canada. We also mined the whole-genome data to reveal mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. We discovered that CC17 GBS strains causing neonatal…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Plasmid characterization and chromosome analysis of two netF+ Clostridium perfringens isolates associated with foal and canine necrotizing enteritis.

The recent discovery of a novel beta-pore-forming toxin, NetF, which is strongly associated with canine and foal necrotizing enteritis should improve our understanding of the role of type A Clostridium perfringens associated disease in these animals. The current study presents the complete genome sequence of two netF-positive strains, JFP55 and JFP838, which were recovered from cases of foal necrotizing enteritis and canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, respectively. Genome sequencing was done using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) technology-PacBio and Illumina Hiseq2000. The JFP55 and JFP838 genomes include a single 3.34 Mb and 3.53 Mb chromosome, respectively, and both genomes include five circular plasmids.…

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