July 7, 2019  |  

Tracing the de novo origin of protein-coding genes in yeast.

De novo genes are very important for evolutionary innovation. However, how these genes originate and spread remains largely unknown. To better understand this, we rigorously searched for de novo genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and examined their spread and fixation in the population. Here, we identified 84 de novo genes in S. cerevisiae S288C since the divergence with their sister groups. Transcriptome and ribosome profiling data revealed at least 8 (10%) and 28 (33%) de novo genes being expressed and translated only under specific conditions, respectively. DNA microarray data, based on 2-fold change, showed that 87% of the de novo genes are regulated during various biological processes, such as nutrient utilization and sporulation. Our comparative and evolutionary analyses further revealed that some factors, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)/indel mutation, high GC content, and DNA shuffling, contribute to the birth of de novo genes, while domestication and natural selection drive the spread and fixation of these genes. Finally, we also provide evidence suggesting the possible parallel origin of a de novo gene between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus Together, our study provides several new insights into the origin and spread of de novo genes.IMPORTANCE Emergence of de novo genes has occurred in many lineages during evolution, but the birth, spread, and function of these genes remain unresolved. Here we have searched for de novo genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C using rigorous methods, which reduced the effects of bad annotation and genomic gaps on the identification of de novo genes. Through this analysis, we have found 84 new genes originating de novo from previously noncoding regions, 87% of which are very likely involved in various biological processes. We noticed that 10% and 33% of de novo genes were only expressed and translated under specific conditions, therefore, verification of de novo genes through transcriptome and ribosome profiling, especially from limited expression data, may underestimate the number of bona fide new genes. We further show that SNP/indel mutation, high GC content, and DNA shuffling could be involved in the birth of de novo genes, while domestication and natural selection drive the spread and fixation of these genes. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting the possible parallel origin of a new gene. Copyright © 2018 Wu and Knudson.

July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Tuber borchii Vittad., a whitish edible truffle.

The ascomycete Tuber borchii (Pezizomycetes) is a whitish edible truffle that establishes ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with trees and shrubs. This fungus is ubiquitous in Europe and is also cultivated outside Europe. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of T. borchii strain Tbo3840 (97.18 Mb in 969 scaffolds, with 12,346 predicted protein-coding genes).

July 7, 2019  |  

Genetic variation of Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates in Western Australia and emergence of a Cyp51A fungicide resistance mutation

Genome-wide, unlinked, simple sequence repeat markers were used to examine genetic variation and relationships within Pyrenophora teres f. teres, a common pathogen of barley, in Western Australia. Despite the region’s geographic isolation, the isolates showed relatively high allelic variation compared to similar studies, averaging 7.11 alleles per locus. Principal component, Bayesian clustering and distance differentiation parameters provided evidence for both regional genotypic subdivision together with juxtaposing of isolates possessing different genetic backgrounds. Genotyping of fungicide resistant Cyp51A isolates indicated a single mutation event occurred followed by recombination and long-distance regional dispersal over hundreds of kilometres. Selection of recently emergent favourable alleles such as the Cyp51A mutation and a cultivar virulence may provide an explanation, at least in part, for juxtaposed genotypes. Factors affecting genotypic composition and the movement of new genotypes are discussed in the context of grower practices and pathogen epidemiology, together with the implications for resistance breeding.

July 7, 2019  |  

Rationally designed perturbation factor drives evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for industrial application.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with favorable characteristics are preferred for application in industries. However, the current ability to reprogram a yeast cell on the genome scale is limited due to the complexity of yeast ploids. In this study, a method named genome replication engineering-assisted continuous evolution (GREACE) was proved efficient in engineering S. cerevisiae with different ploids. Through iterative cycles of culture coupled with selection, GREACE could continuously improve the target traits of yeast by accumulating beneficial genetic modification in genome. The application of GREACE greatly improved the tolerance of yeast against acetic acid compared with their parent strain. This method could also be employed to improve yeast aroma profile and the phenotype could be stably inherited to the offspring. Therefore, GREACE method was efficient in S. cerevisiae engineering and it could be further used to evolve yeast with other specific characteristics.

July 7, 2019  |  

Traditional Norwegian kveik are a genetically distinct group of domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewing yeasts.

The widespread production of fermented food and beverages has resulted in the domestication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts specifically adapted to beer production. While there is evidence beer yeast domestication was accelerated by industrialization of beer, there also exists a farmhouse brewing culture in western Norway which has passed down yeasts referred to as kveik for generations. This practice has resulted in ale yeasts which are typically highly flocculant, phenolic off flavor negative (POF-), and exhibit a high rate of fermentation, similar to previously characterized lineages of domesticated yeast. Additionally, kveik yeasts are reportedly high-temperature tolerant, likely due to the traditional practice of pitching yeast into warm (>28°C) wort. Here, we characterize kveik yeasts from 9 different Norwegian sources via PCR fingerprinting, whole genome sequencing of selected strains, phenotypic screens, and lab-scale fermentations. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that kveik yeasts form a distinct group among beer yeasts. Additionally, we identify a novel POF- loss-of-function mutation, as well as SNPs and CNVs potentially relevant to the thermotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, and high fermentation rate phenotypes of kveik strains. We also identify domestication markers related to flocculation in kveik. Taken together, the results suggest that Norwegian kveik yeasts are a genetically distinct group of domesticated beer yeasts with properties highly relevant to the brewing sector.

July 7, 2019  |  

Approximate, simultaneous comparison of microbial genome architectures via syntenic anchoring of quiver representations

Motivation A long-standing limitation in comparative genomic studies is the dependency on a reference genome, which hinders the spectrum of genetic diversity that can be identified across a population of organisms. This is especially true in the microbial world where genome architectures can significantly vary. There is therefore a need for computational methods that can simultaneously analyze the architectures of multiple genomes without introducing bias from a reference. Results In this article, we present Ptolemy: a novel method for studying the diversity of genome architectures—such as structural variation and pan-genomes—across a collection of microbial assemblies without the need of a reference. Ptolemy is a ‘top-down’ approach to compare whole genome assemblies. Genomes are represented as labeled multi-directed graphs—known as quivers—which are then merged into a single, canonical quiver by identifying ‘gene anchors’ via synteny analysis. The canonical quiver represents an approximate, structural alignment of all genomes in a given collection encoding structural variation across (sub-) populations within the collection. We highlight various applications of Ptolemy by analyzing structural variation and the pan-genomes of different datasets composing of Mycobacterium, Saccharomyces, Escherichia and Shigella species. Our results show that Ptolemy is flexible and can handle both conserved and highly dynamic genome architectures. Ptolemy is user-friendly—requires only FASTA-formatted assembly along with a corresponding GFF-formatted file—and resource-friendly—can align 24 genomes in ~10 mins with four CPUs and <2 GB of RAM.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Chryseobacterium indologenes PgBE177, isolated from Panax quinquefolius.

Chryseobacterium indologenes PgBE177, isolated from the root tissue of a 4-year-old Panax quinquefolius plant, showed antagonistic activity against Pseu- domonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, a bacterial pathogen. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of C. indologenes PgBE177. The bacterium contains bacteri- ocin gene clusters and has the potential to stimulate plant growth.

July 7, 2019  |  

Single-phase PacBio de novo assembly of the genome of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogen of Amphibia.

Here, we present an updated genome assembly of the diploid chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strain RTP6. This strain is part of the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) and was isolated in Dunedin, New Zealand. The assembly was generated using PacBio long-read and Illumina short-read data, allowing for the accurate phasing of heterozygosities.

July 7, 2019  |  

The gold-standard genome of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3 enables a detailed view of the diversity of sugar catabolism in fungi.

The fungal kingdom is too large to be discovered exclusively by classical genetics. The access to omics data opens a new opportunity to study the diversity within the fungal kingdom and how adaptation to new environments shapes fungal metabolism. Genomes are the foundation of modern science but their quality is crucial when analysing omics data. In this study, we demonstrate how one gold-standard genome can improve functional prediction across closely related species to be able to identify key enzymes, reactions and pathways with the focus on primary carbon metabolism. Based on this approach we identified alternative genes encoding various steps of the different sugar catabolic pathways, and as such provided leads for functional studies into this topic. We also revealed significant diversity with respect to genome content, although this did not always correlate to the ability of the species to use the corresponding sugar as a carbon source.

January 23, 2017  |  

Tutorial: HGAP4 de novo assembly application

This tutorial provides an overview of the Hierarchical Genome Assembly Process (HGAP4) de novo assembly analysis application. HGAP4 generates accurate de novo assemblies using only PacBio data. HGAP4 is suitable…

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