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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length mRNA sequencing and gene expression profiling reveal broad involvement of natural antisense transcript gene pairs in pepper development and response to stresses.

Pepper is an important vegetable with great economic value and unique biological features. In the past few years, significant development has been made towards understanding the huge complex pepper genome; however, pepper functional genomics has not been well studied. To better understand the pepper gene structure and pepper gene regulation, we conducted full-length mRNA sequencing by PacBio sequencing and obtained 57862 high-quality full-length mRNA sequences derived from 18362 previously annotated and 5769 newly detected genes. New gene models were built that combined the full-length mRNA sequences and corrected approximately 500 fragmented gene models from previous annotations. Based on the full-length…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The landscape of SNCA transcripts across synucleinopathies: New insights from long reads sequencing analysis

Dysregulation of alpha-synuclein expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinsontextquoterights Disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Previous studies have shown that the alternatively spliced isoforms of the SNCA gene are differentially expressed in different parts of the brain for PD and DLB patients. Similarly, SNCA isoforms with skipped exons can have a functional impact on the protein domains. The large intronic region of the SNCA gene was also shown to harbor structural variants that affect transcriptional levels. Here we apply the first study of using long read sequencing with targeted capture of both…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Hybrid Sequencing of Full-Length cDNA Transcripts of the Medicinal Plant Scutellaria baicalensis.

Scutellaria baicalensis is a well-known medicinal plant that produces biologically active flavonoids, such as baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin. Pharmacological studies have shown that these compounds have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer activities. Therefore, it is of great significance to investigate the genetic information of S. baicalensis, particularly the genes related to the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds. Here, we constructed the full-length transcriptome of S. baicalensis using a hybrid sequencing strategy and acquired 338,136 full-length sequences, accounting for 93.3% of the total reads. After the removal of redundancy and correction with Illumina short reads, 75,785 nonredundant transcripts were generated, among which…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Survey of the Bradysia odoriphaga Transcriptome Using PacBio Single-Molecule Long-Read Sequencing.

The damage caused by Bradysia odoriphaga is the main factor threatening the production of vegetables in the Liliaceae family. However, few genetic studies of B. odoriphaga have been conducted because of a lack of genomic resources. Many long-read sequencing technologies have been developed in the last decade; therefore, in this study, the transcriptome including all development stages of B. odoriphaga was sequenced for the first time by Pacific single-molecule long-read sequencing. Here, 39,129 isoforms were generated, and 35,645 were found to have annotation results when checked against sequences available in different databases. Overall, 18,473 isoforms were distributed in 25 various…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A draft nuclear-genome assembly of the acoel flatworm Praesagittifera naikaiensis.

Acoels are primitive bilaterians with very simple soft bodies, in which many organs, including the gut, are not developed. They provide platforms for studying molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the formation of the basic bilaterian body plan, whole-body regeneration, and symbiosis with photosynthetic microalgae. Because genomic information is essential for future research on acoel biology, we sequenced and assembled the nuclear genome of an acoel, Praesagittifera naikaiensis.To avoid sequence contamination derived from symbiotic microalgae, DNA was extracted from embryos that were free of algae. More than 290x sequencing coverage was achieved using a combination of Illumina (paired-end and mate-pair…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

SMRT sequencing analysis reveals the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing patterns in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is an herbaceous perennial monocot cultivated as an ornamental plant for its chimeric leaves. Because of its genomic complexity, and because no genomic information is available in the public GenBank database, the complete structure of the mRNA transcript is unclear and there are limited molecular mechanism studies for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.Three size fractionated full-length cDNA libraries (1-2 kb, 2-3 kb, and 3-6 kb) were constructed and subsequently sequenced in five single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cells (2 cells, 2 cells, and 1 cell, respectively).In total, 19,838 transcripts were identified for alternative splicing (AS) analysis. Among them, 19,185…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Tissue specific alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) splice isoform diversity in Hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

The present study, for the first time, reported twelve A2M isoforms in Tenualosa ilisha, through SMRT sequencing. Hilsa shad, T. ilisha, an anadromous fish, faces environmental stresses and is thus prone to diseases. Here, expression profiles of different A2M isoforms in four tissues were studied in T. ilisha, for the tissue specific diversity of A2M. Large scale high quality full length transcripts (>0.99% accuracy) were obtained from liver, ovary, testes and gill transcriptomes, through Iso-sequencing on PacBio RSII. A total of 12 isoforms, with complete putatative proteins, were detected in three tissues (7 isoforms in liver, 4 in ovary and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Targeted Long-Read RNA Sequencing Demonstrates Transcriptional Diversity Driven by Splice-Site Variation in MYBPC3.

To date, clinical sequencing has focused on genomic DNA using targeted panels and exome sequencing. Sequencing of a large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort revealed that positive identification of a disease-associated variant was returned in only 32% of patients, with an additional 15% receiving inconclusive results. When genome sequencing fails to reveal causative variants, the transcriptome may provide additional diagnostic clarity. A recent study examining patients with genetically undiagnosed muscle disorders found that RNA sequencing, when used as a complement to exome and whole genome sequencing, had an overall diagnosis rate of 35%.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Parallels between natural selection in the cold-adapted crop-wild relative Tripsacum dactyloides and artificial selection in temperate adapted maize.

Artificial selection has produced varieties of domesticated maize that thrive in temperate climates around the world. However, the direct progenitor of maize, teosinte, is indigenous only to a relatively small range of tropical and subtropical latitudes and grows poorly or not at all outside of this region. Tripsacum, a sister genus to maize and teosinte, is naturally endemic to the majority of areas in the western hemisphere where maize is cultivated. A full-length reference transcriptome for Tripsacum dactyloides generated using long-read Iso-Seq data was used to characterize independent adaptation to temperate climates in this clade. Genes related to phospholipid biosynthesis,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A full-length transcriptome of Sepia esculenta using a combination of single-molecule long-read (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing

As an economically important cephalopods species, wild-caught Sepia esculenta fishery has suffered a server decline due to over-fishing and ocean environmental damage. To restore this seriously declining fishery resource, we should understand the genetic foundation and molecular mechanism of spawning, reproduction and mortal of golden cuttlefish. In this study, we generated the full-length transcriptome of S. esculenta based on the total RNA of tissue samples (brain, optic gland, nidamental gland, ovary and muscle at different developmental stages) using a combination of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 14.16 Gb SMRT sequencing data were assembled into 94,635…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length transcriptome analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals transcript variants involved in the innate immune system.

To better understand the immune system of shrimp, this study combined PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) and Illumina paired-end short reads sequencing methods to discover full-length immune-related molecules of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 72,648 nonredundant full-length transcripts (unigenes) were generated with an average length of 2545 bp from five main tissues, including the hepatopancreas, cardiac stomach, heart, muscle, and pyloric stomach. These unigenes exhibited a high annotation rate (62,164, 85.57%) when compared against NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, Pfam, GO, KEGG and COG databases. A total of 7544 putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were detected and 1164 nonredundant…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Hybrid sequencing-based personal full-length transcriptomic analysis implicates proteostatic stress in metastatic ovarian cancer.

Comprehensive molecular characterization of myriad somatic alterations and aberrant gene expressions at personal level is key to precision cancer therapy, yet limited by current short-read sequencing technology, individualized catalog of complete genomic and transcriptomic features is thus far elusive. Here, we integrated second- and third-generation sequencing platforms to generate a multidimensional dataset on a patient affected by metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer. Whole-genome and hybrid transcriptome dissection captured global genetic and transcriptional variants at previously unparalleled resolution. Particularly, single-molecule mRNA sequencing identified a vast array of unannotated transcripts, novel long noncoding RNAs and gene chimeras, permitting accurate determination of transcription start,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

PacBio full-length cDNA sequencing integrated with RNA-seq reads drastically improves the discovery of splicing transcripts in rice.

In eukaryotes, alternative splicing (AS) greatly expands the diversity of transcripts. However, it is challenging to accurately determine full-length splicing isoforms. Recently, more studies have taken advantage of Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) long-read sequencing to identify full-length transcripts. Nevertheless, the high error rate of PacBio reads seriously offsets the advantages of long reads, especially for accurately identifying splicing junctions. To best capitalize on the features of long reads, we used Illumina RNA-seq reads to improve PacBio circular consensus sequence (CCS) quality and to validate splicing patterns in the rice transcriptome. We evaluated the impact of CCS accuracy on the number and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reference genome sequences of two cultivated allotetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.

Allotetraploid cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense) have long been cultivated worldwide for natural renewable textile fibers. The draft genome sequences of both species are available but they are highly fragmented and incomplete1-4. Here we report reference-grade genome assemblies and annotations for G. hirsutum accession Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and G. barbadense accession 3-79 by integrating single-molecule real-time sequencing, BioNano optical mapping and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques. Compared with previous assembled draft genomes1,3, these genome sequences show considerable improvements in contiguity and completeness for regions with high content of repeats such as centromeres. Comparative genomics analyses identify extensive structural…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The developmental dynamics of the Populus stem transcriptome.

The Populus shoot undergoes primary growth (longitudinal growth) followed by secondary growth (radial growth), which produces biomass that is an important source of energy worldwide. We adopted joint PacBio Iso-Seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify differentially expressed transcripts along a developmental gradient from the shoot apex to the fifth internode of Populus Nanlin895. We obtained 87 150 full-length transcripts, including 2081 new isoforms and 62 058 new alternatively spliced isoforms, most of which were produced by intron retention, that were used to update the Populus annotation. Among these novel isoforms, there are 1187 long non-coding RNAs and 356 fusion genes.…

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