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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Variant Phasing and Haplotypic Expression from Single-molecule Long-read Sequencing in Maize

Haplotype phasing of genetic variants is important for interpretation of the maize genome, population genetic analysis, and functional genomic analysis of allelic activity. Accordingly, accurate methods for phasing full-length isoforms are essential for functional genomics study. In this study, we performed an isoform-level phasing study in maize, using two inbred lines and their reciprocal crosses, based on single-molecule full-length cDNA sequencing. To phase and analyze full-length transcripts between hybrids and parents, we developed a tool called IsoPhase. Using this tool, we validated the majority of SNPs called against matching short read data and identified cases of allele-specific, gene-level, and isoform-level…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

ORF Capture-Seq: a versatile method for targeted identification of full-length isoforms

Most human protein-coding genes are expressed as multiple isoforms. This in turn greatly expands the functional repertoire of the encoded proteome. While at least one reliable open reading frame (ORF) model has been assigned for every gene, the majority of alternative isoforms remains uncharacterized experimentally. This is primarily due to: i) vast differences of overall levels between different isoforms expressed from common genes, and ii) the difficulty of obtaining contiguous full-length ORF sequences. Here, we present ORF Capture-Seq (OCS), a flexible and cost-effective method that addresses both challenges for targeted full-length isoform sequencing applications using collections of cloned ORFs as…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Survey of the Bradysia odoriphaga Transcriptome Using PacBio Single-Molecule Long-Read Sequencing.

The damage caused by Bradysia odoriphaga is the main factor threatening the production of vegetables in the Liliaceae family. However, few genetic studies of B. odoriphaga have been conducted because of a lack of genomic resources. Many long-read sequencing technologies have been developed in the last decade; therefore, in this study, the transcriptome including all development stages of B. odoriphaga was sequenced for the first time by Pacific single-molecule long-read sequencing. Here, 39,129 isoforms were generated, and 35,645 were found to have annotation results when checked against sequences available in different databases. Overall, 18,473 isoforms were distributed in 25 various…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genetic basis of functional variability in adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

The enormous sizes of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) go along with complex genomic exon-intron architectures giving rise to multiple mRNA variants. There is a need for a comprehensive catalog of aGPCR variants for proper evaluation of the complex functions of aGPCRs found in structural, in vitro and animal model studies. We used an established bioinformatics pipeline to extract, quantify and visualize mRNA variants of aGPCRs from deeply sequenced transcriptomes. Data analysis showed that aGPCRs have multiple transcription start sites even within introns and that tissue-specific splicing is frequent. On average, 19 significantly expressed transcript variants are derived from a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Analysis of Transcriptome and Epitranscriptome in Plants Using PacBio Iso-Seq and Nanopore-Based Direct RNA Sequencing.

Nanopore sequencing from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) and Pacific BioSciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) are revolutionizing the way transcriptomes are analyzed. These methods offer many advantages over most widely used high-throughput short-read RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) approaches and allow a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes in identifying full-length splice isoforms and several other post-transcriptional events. In addition, direct RNA-Seq provides valuable information about RNA modifications, which are lost during the PCR amplification step in other methods. Here, we present a comprehensive summary of important applications of these technologies in plants, including identification of complex alternative splicing (AS), full-length…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complexity of the Fragaria x ananassa (octoploid) transcriptome by single-molecule long-read sequencing.

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is an allopolyploid species with diverse and complex transcripts. The regulatory mechanisms of fruit development and maturation have been extensively studied; however, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that direct this process in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Here, we used long-read sequencing (LRS) technology and RNA-seq analysis to investigate the diversity and complexity of the polyploid transcriptome and differentially expressed transcripts along four successive fruit developmental stages of cultivated strawberry. We obtained a reference transcriptome with 119,897 unique full-length isoforms, including 2017 new isoforms and 2510 long noncoding RNAs. Based on the genome of…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

User Group Meeting: Long-read RNA Sequencing in neglected human parasites

In this PacBio User Group Meeting presentation, Nic Wheeler of University of Wisconsin-Madison, speaks about RNA sequencing for filarial nematodes associated with understudied tropical diseases. His team used Iso-Seq analysis to improve gene models and achieve better transcriptome coverage for these worms, which typically have poorly annotated and fragmented genome assemblies. While getting enough RNA to study is a technical challenge, the group still managed to generate full-length isoforms, many of which were novel or contained novel junctions.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Balancing act of transcript isoforms

Anne Deslattes Mays from Georgetown University presents her AGBT poster on the balancing act of discovering transcriptome isoforms. Using SMRT Sequencing to study differentiated and undifferentiated cells from human bone marrow, she analyzed full-length isoforms and confirmed unexpected findings with mass spec. She says access to unfragmented long reads allows scientists to move from transcripts to proteins.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Comparative analysis of somatic fusion gene detection using short read and long read sequencing

Bioinformatics scientist Chetanya Pandya from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai presents a poster comparing short-read and long-read sequencing to detect somatic fusion events in cancer samples. SMRT Sequencing identified significantly more fusions, while many of the short-read calls may have been artifacts from challenging regions of the genome.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Using the PacBio Iso-Seq method to search for novel colorectal cancer biomarkers

Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions (adenomas) is crucial to reduce mortality rates. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a non-invasive CRC screening test that detects the blood-derived protein hemoglobin. However, FIT sensitivity is suboptimal especially in detection of CRC precursor lesions. As adenoma-to-carcinoma progression is accompanied by alternative splicing, tumor-specific proteins derived from alternatively spliced RNA transcripts might serve as candidate biomarkers for CRC detection.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: Chasing alternative splicing in cancer: Simplified full-length isoform sequencing

Tremendous flexibility is maintained in the human proteome via alternative splicing, and cancer genomes often subvert this flexibility to promote survival. Identification and annotation of cancer-specific mRNA isoforms is critical to understanding how mutations in the genome affect the biology of cancer cells. While microarrays and other NGS-based methods have become useful for studying transcriptomes, these technologies yield short, fragmented transcripts that remain a challenge for accurate, complete reconstruction of splice variants. The Iso-Seq method developed at PacBio offers the only solution for direct sequencing of full-length, single-molecule cDNA sequences needed to discover biomarkers for early detection and cancer stratification,…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: SMRT Sequencing applications in plant and animal sciences: an overview

In this webinar, Emily Hatas of PacBio shares information about the applications and benefits of SMRT Sequencing in plant and animal biology, agriculture, and industrial research fields. This session contains an overview of several applications: whole-genome sequencing for de novo assembly; transcript isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) method for genome annotation; targeted sequencing solutions; and metagenomics and microbial interactions. High-level workflows and best practices are discussed for key applications.

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Full-length transcriptome sequencing of melanoma cell line complements long-read assessment of genomic rearrangements

Transcriptome sequencing has proven to be an important tool for understanding the biological changes in cancer genomes including the consequences of structural rearrangements. Short read sequencing has been the method of choice, as the high throughput at low cost allows for transcript quantitation and the detection of even rare transcripts. However, the reads are generally too short to reconstruct complete isoforms. Conversely, long-read approaches can provide unambiguous full-length isoforms, but lower throughput has complicated quantitation and high RNA input requirements has made working with cancer samples challenging. Recently, the COLO 829 cell line was sequenced to 50-fold coverage with PacBio…

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