July 7, 2019  |  

Emergence of tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5 during tigecycline salvage treatment.

Here, we report a case of severe infection caused by Escherichia coli that harbored mcr-1, blaNDM-5, and acquired resistance to tigecycline during tigecycline salvage therapy.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Southern blot hybridization, and complete genome sequence of the strains were carried out. The genetic characteristics of the mcr-1 and blaNDM-5 plasmids were analyzed. The whole genome sequencing of mcr-1-containing plasmid was completed. Finally, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletion mutations in the tigecycline-resistant strain were predicted.Three E. coli isolates were obtained from ascites, pleural effusion, and stool of a patient; they were resistant to almost all the tested antibiotics. The first two strains separated from ascites (E-FQ) and hydrothorax (E-XS) were susceptible to amikacin and tigecycline; however, the third strain from stool (E-DB) was resistant to tigecycline after nearly 3 weeks’ treatment with tigecycline. All three isolates possessed both mcr-1 and blaNDM-5. The blaNDM-5 gene was found on the IncX3 plasmid, whereas the mcr-1, fosA3 and blaCTX-M-14 were located on the IncHI2 plasmid. Mutations in acrB and lon were the reason for the resistance to tigecycline.This is the first report of a colistin-, carbapenem-, and tigecycline-resistant E. coli in China. Tigecycline resistance acquired during tigecycline therapy is of great concern for us because tigecycline is a drug of last resort to treat carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Furthermore, the transmission of such extensively drug-resistant isolates may pose a great threat to public health.

July 7, 2019  |  

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the chromosome, and the pY546 plasmid contained several clusters of genes conferring resistance to metals, such as copper (pco), arsenic (ars), tellurite (ter), and tetrathionate (ttr), and genes encoding many divalent cation transporter proteins. The comparative genomic analyses of the whole plasmid sequence and of the heavy metal resistance gene-encoding regions revealed that the plasmid sequences of Klebsiella pneumoniae (such as pKPN-332, pKPN-3967, and pKPN-262) shared the highest similarity with those of pY546. It may be concluded that a variety of ß-lactamase genes present in E. cloacae which confer resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics and the emergence of plasmids carrying heavy metal resistance genes in clinical isolates are alarming and need further surveillance.

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