June 1, 2021  |  

Complete microbial genomes, epigenomes, and transcriptomes using long-read PacBio Sequencing.

For comprehensive metabolic reconstructions and a resulting understanding of the pathways leading to natural products, it is desirable to obtain complete information about the genetic blueprint of the organisms used. Traditional Sanger and next-generation, short-read sequencing technologies have shortcomings with respect to read lengths and DNA-sequence context bias, leading to fragmented and incomplete genome information. The development of long-read, single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing from Pacific Biosciences, with >10,000 bp average read lengths and a lack of sequence context bias, now allows for the generation of complete genomes in a fully automated workflow. In addition to the genome sequence, DNA methylation is characterized in the process of sequencing. PacBio® sequencing has also been applied to microbial transcriptomes. Long reads enable sequencing of full-length cDNAs allowing for identification of complete gene and operon sequences without the need for transcript assembly. We will highlight several examples where these capabilities have been leveraged in the areas of industrial microbiology, including biocommodities, biofuels, bioremediation, new bacteria with potential commercial applications, antibiotic discovery, and livestock/plant microbiome interactions.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of Marinobacter sp. LQ44, a haloalkaliphilic phenol-degrading bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent

Marinobacter sp. strain LQ44, an alkaliphile and moderate halophile from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise, is a novel phenol-degrading bacterium that is capable of utilizing phenol as sole carbon and energy sources. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain LQ44, which consists of 4,435,564?bp with a circular chromosome, 4164 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA operons and 50 tRNAs. Genome analysis revealed that strain LQ44 may degrade phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. The LQ44 genome contains multiple genes involved in pH adaptation and osmotic adjustment. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation, aerobic denitrification and potential industrial important enzymes were also identified from the genome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome sequence of a haloalkaliphilic phenol-degrading bacterium, which will provide insights into the survival of this bacterium under salt-alkali conditions and the potential for biotechnological applications.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic analysis of Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6 isolated from the deep-sea oceanic crust on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Two Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6 were isolated from a deep oceanic basaltic crust at North Pond, located at the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These two strains are capable of using multiple carbon sources such as acetate, succinate, glucose and sucrose while take oxygen as a primary electron acceptor. The strain NP-4 is also able to grow anaerobically under 20?MPa, with nitrate as the electron acceptor, thus represents a piezotolerant. To explore the metabolic potentials of Marinobacter sp. NP-4 and NP-6, the complete genome of NP-4 and close-to-complete genome of NP-6 were sequenced. The genome of NP-4 contains one chromosome and two plasmids with the size of 4.6?Mb in total, and with average GC content of 57.0%. The genome of NP-6 is 4.5?Mb and consists of 6 scaffolds, with an average GC content of 57.1%. Complete glycolysis, citrate cycle and aromatics compounds degradation pathways are identified in genomes of these two strains, suggesting that they possess a heterotrophic life style. Additionally, one plasmid of NP-4 contains genes for alkane degradation, phosphonate ABC transporter and cation efflux system, enabling NP-4 extra surviving abilities. In total, genomic information of these two strains provide insights into the physiological features and adaptation strategies of Marinobacter spp. in the deep oceanic crust biosphere.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic data mining of an Antarctic deep-sea actinobacterium, Janibacter limosus P3-3-X1

Janibacter limosus P3-3-X1, a psychrotolerant deep-sea actinobacterium isolated from the Southern Ocean, was completely sequenced and analyzed for its biotechnological potential in bioremediation and natural product biosynthesis. The circular genome contained 3.5?Mb with a high GC content of 70.44?mol%. Genomic data mining revealed a gene cluster for degrading phenol and its derivatives, including a multi-component phenol hydroxylase and a meta-cleavage pathway. The strain was shown to grow on phenol as its sole carbon source, supporting the findings of genomic analysis. Many more genes encoding for monooxygenases, dioxygenases and other aromatic compound degradation proteins involved in xenobiotics degradation were detected. Multiple natural product biosynthesis gene clusters were predicted as well. The genome sequencing and data mining provide insights into the bioremediation ability and biosynthetic potential of the Antarctic actinobacterium, and promote further experimental verification and exploration.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. MEBiC 03485, isolated from deep-sea sediment

Pseudoalteromonas strains are widely distributed in the marine environment and most have attracted considerable interest owing to their ability to synthesize biologically active metabolites. In this study, we report and describe the genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. MEBiC 03485, isolated from the deep-sea sediment of Pacific Ocean at a depth of 2000?m. The complete genome consisted of three contigs with a total genome size of 4,167,407?bp and a GC content of 40.76?l%, and was predicted to contain 4194 protein-coding genes and 131 non-coding RNA genes. The strain MEBiC 03485 genome was also shown to contain genes for diverse metabolic pathways. Genome analysis revealed that the genome of strain MEBiC 03485 was enriched with genes involved in signal transduction, mobile elements, and cold-adaptation, some of which might improve ecological fitness in the deep-sea environment. These findings improve our understanding of microbial adaptation strategies in deep-sea environments.


April 21, 2020  |  

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a factory for kahalalide production. This interaction between a bacterium, an alga, and an animal highlights the importance of chemical defense in the evolution of complex symbioses.Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.


April 21, 2020  |  

Into the Thermus Mobilome: Presence, Diversity and Recent Activities of Insertion Sequences Across Thermus spp.

A high level of transposon-mediated genome rearrangement is a common trait among microorganisms isolated from thermal environments, probably contributing to the extraordinary genomic plasticity and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) observed in these habitats. In this work, active and inactive insertion sequences (ISs) spanning the sequenced members of the genus Thermus were characterized, with special emphasis on three T. thermophilus strains: HB27, HB8, and NAR1. A large number of full ISs and fragments derived from different IS families were found, concentrating within megaplasmids present in most isolates. Potentially active ISs were identified through analysis of transposase integrity, and domestication-related transposition events of ISTth7 were identified in laboratory-adapted HB27 derivatives. Many partial copies of ISs appeared throughout the genome, which may serve as specific targets for homologous recombination contributing to genome rearrangement. Moreover, recruitment of IS1000 32 bp segments as spacers for CRISPR sequence was identified, pointing to the adaptability of these elements in the biology of these thermophiles. Further knowledge about the activity and functional diversity of ISs in this genus may contribute to the generation of engineered transposons as new genetic tools, and enrich our understanding of the outstanding plasticity shown by these thermophiles.


April 21, 2020  |  

Morphology and genome of a snailfish from the Mariana Trench provide insights into deep-sea adaptation.

It is largely unknown how living organisms-especially vertebrates-survive and thrive in the coldness, darkness and high pressures of the hadal zone. Here, we describe the unique morphology and genome of Pseudoliparis swirei-a recently described snailfish species living below a depth of 6,000?m in the Mariana Trench. Unlike closely related shallow sea species, P. swirei has transparent, unpigmented skin and scales, thin and incompletely ossified bones, an inflated stomach and a non-closed skull. Phylogenetic analyses show that P. swirei diverged from a close relative living near the sea surface about 20?million?years ago and has abundant genetic diversity. Genomic analyses reveal that: (1) the bone Gla protein (bglap) gene has a frameshift mutation that may cause early termination of cartilage calcification; (2) cell membrane fluidity and transport protein activity in P. swirei may have been enhanced by changes in protein sequences and gene expansion; and (3) the stability of its proteins may have been increased by critical mutations in the trimethylamine N-oxide-synthesizing enzyme and hsp90 chaperone protein. Our results provide insights into the morphological, physiological and molecular evolution of hadal vertebrates.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of marine Bacillus sp. Y-01, isolated from the plastics contamination in the Yellow Sea

Plastics contamination in the environment has been an increasing ecological problem. Here we present the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. Y-01, isolated from plastic contamination samples in the Yellow Sea, which can utilize the polypropylene as the sole carbon and energy source. The strain has one circular chromosome of 5,130,901?bp in 8 contigs with a 38.24% GC content, consisting of 4996 protein-coding genes, 118 tRNA genes, as well as 40 rRNA operons as 5S-16S-23S rRNA. The complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. Y-01 will provide useful genetic information to further detect the molecular mechanisms behind marine microplastics degradation.


April 21, 2020  |  

A New Species of the ?-Proteobacterium Francisella, F. adeliensis Sp. Nov., Endocytobiont in an Antarctic Marine Ciliate and Potential Evolutionary Forerunner of Pathogenic Species.

The study of the draft genome of an Antarctic marine ciliate, Euplotes petzi, revealed foreign sequences of bacterial origin belonging to the ?-proteobacterium Francisella that includes pathogenic and environmental species. TEM and FISH analyses confirmed the presence of a Francisella endocytobiont in E. petzi. This endocytobiont was isolated and found to be a new species, named F. adeliensis sp. nov.. F. adeliensis grows well at wide ranges of temperature, salinity, and carbon dioxide concentrations implying that it may colonize new organisms living in deeply diversified habitats. The F. adeliensis genome includes the igl and pdp gene sets (pdpC and pdpE excepted) of the Francisella pathogenicity island needed for intracellular growth. Consistently with an F. adeliensis ancient symbiotic lifestyle, it also contains a single insertion-sequence element. Instead, it lacks genes for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids such as cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tyrosine. In a genome-based phylogenetic tree, F. adeliensis forms a new early branching clade, basal to the evolution of pathogenic species. The correlations of this clade with the other clades raise doubts about a genuine free-living nature of the environmental Francisella species isolated from natural and man-made environments, and suggest to look at F. adeliensis as a pioneer in the Francisella colonization of eukaryotic organisms.


April 21, 2020  |  

Antarctic blackfin icefish genome reveals adaptations to extreme environments.

Icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei; family Channichthyidae) are the only vertebrates that lack functional haemoglobin genes and red blood cells. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly and linkage map for the Antarctic blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus, highlighting evolved genomic features for its unique physiology. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that Antarctic fish of the teleost suborder Notothenioidei, including icefishes, diverged from the stickleback lineage about 77 million years ago and subsequently evolved cold-adapted phenotypes as the Southern Ocean cooled to sub-zero temperatures. Our results show that genes involved in protection from ice damage, including genes encoding antifreeze glycoprotein and zona pellucida proteins, are highly expanded in the icefish genome. Furthermore, genes that encode enzymes that help to control cellular redox state, including members of the sod3 and nqo1 gene families, are expanded, probably as evolutionary adaptations to the relatively high concentration of oxygen dissolved in cold Antarctic waters. In contrast, some crucial regulators of circadian homeostasis (cry and per genes) are absent from the icefish genome, suggesting compromised control of biological rhythms in the polar light environment. The availability of the icefish genome sequence will accelerate our understanding of adaptation to extreme Antarctic environments.


April 21, 2020  |  

An Annotated Genome for Haliotis rufescens (Red Abalone) and Resequenced Green, Pink, Pinto, Black, and White Abalone Species.

Abalone are one of the few marine taxa where aquaculture production dominates the global market as a result of increasing demand and declining natural stocks from overexploitation and disease. To better understand abalone biology, aid in conservation efforts for endangered abalone species, and gain insight into sustainable aquaculture, we created a draft genome of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). The approach to this genome draft included initial assembly using raw Illumina and PacBio sequencing data with MaSuRCA, before scaffolding using sequencing data generated from Chicago library preparations with HiRise2. This assembly approach resulted in 8,371 scaffolds and total length of 1.498?Gb; the N50 was 1.895?Mb, and the longest scaffold was 13.2?Mb. Gene models were predicted, using MAKER2, from RNA-Seq data and all related expressed sequence tags and proteins from NCBI; this resulted in 57,785 genes with an average length of 8,255?bp. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms were called on Illumina short-sequencing reads from five other eastern Pacific abalone species: the green (H. fulgens), pink (H. corrugata), pinto (H. kamtschatkana), black (H. cracherodii), and white (H. sorenseni) abalone. Phylogenetic relationships largely follow patterns detected by previous studies based on 1,784,991 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms. Among the six abalone species examined, the endangered white abalone appears to harbor the lowest levels of heterozygosity. This draft genome assembly and the sequencing data provide a foundation for genome-enabled aquaculture improvement for red abalone, and for genome-guided conservation efforts for the other five species and, in particular, for the endangered white and black abalone.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.

A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a competitive edge for the survival of N. soli Y48 in oil-polluted environments and reflect the adaptation of coexisting bacteria to distinct nutritional niches.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.


April 21, 2020  |  

Marinitoga lauensis sp. nov., a novel deep-sea hydrothermal vent thermophilic anaerobic heterotroph with a prophage.

A novel moderately thermophilic, heterotrophic anaerobe, designated strain LG1T, was isolated from the Mariner deep-sea hydrothermal vent field along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Valu Fa Ridge. Cells of strain LG1T were motile rods, occurring singly or in pairs, 0.6µm in width and 1.2µm in length. The strain LG1T grew between 40 and 70°C (optimum 50-55°C), at a pH between 5 and 8 (optimum pH 6.5) and with 7.5-50gL-1 NaCl (optimum 30gL-1). Sulfur, cystine and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide, and cell yield was improved in the presence of cystine. Strain LG1T was an organotroph able to use a variety of organic compounds. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain LG1T was affiliated to the genus Marinitoga within the order Petrotogales. It shared 95.34-96.31% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strains of other Marinitoga species, and is most closely related to Marinitoga okinawensis. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a prophage sharing high sequence homology with the viruses MPV1, MCV1 and MCV2 hosted by Marinitoga strains. Based on the data from the phylogenetic analyses and the physiological properties of the novel isolate, we propose that strain LG1T is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Marinitoga lauensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LG1T (=DSM 106824=JCM 32613).Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Carbohydrate catabolic capability of a Flavobacteriia bacterium isolated from hadal water.

Flavobacteriia are abundant in many marine environments including hadal waters, as demonstrated recently. However, it is unclear how this flavobacterial population adapts to hadal conditions. In this study, extensive comparative genomic analyses were performed for the flavobacterial strain Euzebyella marina RN62 isolated from the Mariana Trench hadal water in low abundance. The complete genome of RN62 possessed a considerable number of carbohydrate-active enzymes with a different composition. There was a predominance of GH family 13 proteins compared to closely related relatives, suggesting that RN62 has preserved a certain capacity for carbohydrate utilization and that the hadal ocean may hold an organic matter reservoir distinct from the surface ocean. Additionally, RN62 possessed potential intracellular cycling of the glycogen/starch pathway, which may serve as a strategy for carbon storage and consumption in response to nutrient pulse and starvation. Moreover, the discovery of higher glycoside hydrolase dissimilarities among Flavobacteriia, compared to peptidases and transporters, suggested variation in polysaccharide utilization related traits as an important ecophysiological factor in response to environmental alterations, such as decreased labile organic carbon in hadal waters. The presence of abundant toxin exporting, transcription and signal transduction related genes in RN62 may further help to survive in hadal conditions, including high pressure/low temperature.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


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