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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic Analyses Reveal Evidence of Independent Evolution, Demographic History, and Extreme Environment Adaptation of Tibetan Plateau Agaricus bisporus.

Agaricus bisporus distributed in the Tibetan Plateau of China has high-stress resistance that is valuable for breeding improvements. However, its evolutionary history, specialization, and adaptation to the extreme Tibetan Plateau environment are largely unknown. Here, we performed de novo genome sequencing of a representative Tibetan Plateau wild strain ABM and comparative genomic analysis with the reported European strain H97 and H39. The assembled ABM genome was 30.4 Mb in size, and comprised 8,562 protein-coding genes. The ABM genome shared highly conserved syntenic blocks and a few inversions with H97 and H39. The phylogenetic tree constructed by 1,276 single-copy orthologous genes…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A reference-grade wild soybean genome.

Efficient crop improvement depends on the application of accurate genetic information contained in diverse germplasm resources. Here we report a reference-grade genome of wild soybean accession W05, with a final assembled genome size of 1013.2?Mb and a contig N50 of 3.3?Mb. The analytical power of the W05 genome is demonstrated by several examples. First, we identify an inversion at the locus determining seed coat color during domestication. Second, a translocation event between chromosomes 11 and 13 of some genotypes is shown to interfere with the assignment of QTLs. Third, we find a region containing copy number variations of the Kunitz…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genome sequence and de novo assembly revealed genomic architecture of Indian Mithun (Bos frontalis).

Mithun (Bos frontalis), also called gayal, is an endangered bovine species, under the tribe bovini with 2n?=?58 XX chromosome complements and reared under the tropical rain forests region of India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan and Bangladesh. However, the origin of this species is still disputed and information on its genomic architecture is scanty so far. We trust that availability of its whole genome sequence data and assembly will greatly solve this problem and help to generate many information including phylogenetic status of mithun. Recently, the first genome assembly of gayal, mithun of Chinese origin, was published. However, an improved reference genome…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Divergent evolutionary trajectories following speciation in two ectoparasitic honey bee mites.

Multispecies host-parasite evolution is common, but how parasites evolve after speciating remains poorly understood. Shared evolutionary history and physiology may propel species along similar evolutionary trajectories whereas pursuing different strategies can reduce competition. We test these scenarios in the economically important association between honey bees and ectoparasitic mites by sequencing the genomes of the sister mite species Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni. These genomes were closely related, with 99.7% sequence identity. Among the 9,628 orthologous genes, 4.8% showed signs of positive selection in at least one species. Divergent selective trajectories were discovered in conserved chemosensory gene families (IGR, SNMP), and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Illumina error correction near highly repetitive DNA regions improves de novo genome assembly.

Several standalone error correction tools have been proposed to correct sequencing errors in Illumina data in order to facilitate de novo genome assembly. However, in a recent survey, we showed that state-of-the-art assemblers often did not benefit from this pre-correction step. We found that many error correction tools introduce new errors in reads that overlap highly repetitive DNA regions such as low-complexity patterns or short homopolymers, ultimately leading to a more fragmented assembly.We propose BrownieCorrector, an error correction tool for Illumina sequencing data that focuses on the correction of only those reads that overlap short DNA patterns that are highly…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A hybrid de novo genome assembly of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, with chromosome-length scaffolds.

The ability to generate long sequencing reads and access long-range linkage information is revolutionizing the quality and completeness of genome assemblies. Here we use a hybrid approach that combines data from four genome sequencing and mapping technologies to generate a new genome assembly of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We first generated contigs based on PacBio sequencing libraries, which were then merged with linked-read 10x Chromium data followed by scaffolding using a BioNano optical genome map and a Hi-C chromatin interaction map, complemented by a genetic linkage map.Each of the assembly steps reduced the number of gaps and incorporated a substantial…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

De novo genome sequencing and secretome analysis of Tilletia indica inciting Karnal bunt of wheat provides pathogenesis-related genes.

Tilletia indica is an internationally quarantined fungal pathogen causing Karnal bunt of wheat. The present study carried out that the whole genome of T. indica was sequenced and identified transposable elements, pathogenicity-related genes using a comparative genomics approach. The T. indica genome assembly size of 33.7 MB was generated using Illumina and Pac Bio platforms with GC content of 55.0%. A total of 1737 scaffolds were obtained with N50 of 58,667 bp. The ab initio gene prediction was performed using Ustilago maydis as the reference species. A total number of 10,113 genes were predicted with an average gene size of 1945 bp out…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Gen2Epi: an automated whole-genome sequencing pipeline for linking full genomes to antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiological data in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Recent adva1nces in whole genome sequencing (WGS) based technologies have facilitated multi-step applications for predicting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and investigating the molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, generating full scaffolds of N. gonorrhoeae genomes from short reads, and the assignment of molecular epidemiological information (NG-MLST, NG-MAST, and NG-STAR) to multiple assembled samples, is challenging due to required manual tasks such as annotating antimicrobial resistance determinants with standard nomenclature for a large number of genomes.We present Gen2Epi, a pipeline that assembles short reads into full scaffolds and automatically assigns molecular epidemiological and AMR information to the assembled genomes. Gen2Epi is a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Assignment of virus and antimicrobial resistance genes to microbial hosts in a complex microbial community by combined long-read assembly and proximity ligation.

We describe a method that adds long-read sequencing to a mix of technologies used to assemble a highly complex cattle rumen microbial community, and provide a comparison to short read-based methods. Long-read alignments and Hi-C linkage between contigs support the identification of 188 novel virus-host associations and the determination of phage life cycle states in the rumen microbial community. The long-read assembly also identifies 94 antimicrobial resistance genes, compared to only seven alleles in the short-read assembly. We demonstrate novel techniques that work synergistically to improve characterization of biological features in a highly complex rumen microbial community.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-read based de novo assembly of low-complexity metagenome samples results in finished genomes and reveals insights into strain diversity and an active phage system.

Complete and contiguous genome assemblies greatly improve the quality of subsequent systems-wide functional profiling studies and the ability to gain novel biological insights. While a de novo genome assembly of an isolated bacterial strain is in most cases straightforward, more informative data about co-existing bacteria as well as synergistic and antagonistic effects can be obtained from a direct analysis of microbial communities. However, the complexity of metagenomic samples represents a major challenge. While third generation sequencing technologies have been suggested to enable finished metagenome-assembled genomes, to our knowledge, the complete genome assembly of all dominant strains in a microbiome sample…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A draft genome for Spatholobus suberectus.

Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (S. suberectus), which belongs to the Leguminosae, is an important medicinal plant in China. Owing to its long growth cycle and increased use in human medicine, wild resources of S. suberectus have decreased rapidly and may be on the verge of extinction. De novo assembly of the whole S. suberectus genome provides us a critical potential resource towards biosynthesis of the main bioactive components and seed development regulation mechanism of this plant. Utilizing several sequencing technologies such as Illumina HiSeq X Ten, single-molecule real-time sequencing, 10x Genomics, as well as new assembly techniques such as FALCON and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genomes and transcriptomes reveal adaptation and domestication of pistachio.

Pistachio (Pistacia vera), one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide, is highly adaptable to abiotic stresses and is tolerant to drought and salt stresses.Here, we provide a draft de novo genome of pistachio as well as large-scale genome resequencing. Comparative genomic analyses reveal stress adaptation of pistachio is likely attributable to the expanded cytochrome P450 and chitinase gene families. Particularly, a comparative transcriptomic analysis shows that the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in salt tolerance in pistachio. Moreover, we resequence 93 cultivars and 14 wild P. vera genomes and 35 closely related wild Pistacia…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A high-quality de novo genome assembly from a single mosquito using PacBio sequencing

A high-quality reference genome is a fundamental resource for functional genetics, comparative genomics, and population genomics, and is increasingly important for conservation biology. PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing generates long reads with uniform coverage and high consensus accuracy, making it a powerful technology for de novo genome assembly. Improvements in throughput and concomitant reductions in cost have made PacBio an attractive core technology for many large genome initiatives, however, relatively high DNA input requirements (~5 µg for standard library protocol) have placed PacBio out of reach for many projects on small organisms that have lower DNA content, or on…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Prunus genetics and applications after de novo genome sequencing: achievements and prospects.

Prior to the availability of whole-genome sequences, our understanding of the structural and functional aspects of Prunus tree genomes was limited mostly to molecular genetic mapping of important traits and development of EST resources. With public release of the peach genome and others that followed, significant advances in our knowledge of Prunus genomes and the genetic underpinnings of important traits ensued. In this review, we highlight key achievements in Prunus genetics and breeding driven by the availability of these whole-genome sequences. Within the structural and evolutionary contexts, we summarize: (1) the current status of Prunus whole-genome sequences; (2) preliminary and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The genome of the giant Nomura’s jellyfish sheds light on the early evolution of active predation.

Unique among cnidarians, jellyfish have remarkable morphological and biochemical innovations that allow them to actively hunt in the water column and were some of the first animals to become free-swimming. The class Scyphozoa, or true jellyfish, are characterized by a predominant medusa life-stage consisting of a bell and venomous tentacles used for hunting and defense, as well as using pulsed jet propulsion for mobility. Here, we present the genome of the giant Nomura’s jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) to understand the genetic basis of these key innovations.We sequenced the genome and transcriptomes of the bell and tentacles of the giant Nomura’s jellyfish…

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