X

Quality Statement

Pacific Biosciences is committed to providing high-quality products that meet customer expectations and comply with regulations. We will achieve these goals by adhering to and maintaining an effective quality-management system designed to ensure product quality, performance, and safety.

X

Image Use Agreement

By downloading, copying, or making any use of the images located on this website (“Site”) you acknowledge that you have read and understand, and agree to, the terms of this Image Usage Agreement, as well as the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage, which together govern your use of the images as provided below. If you do not agree to such terms, do not download, copy or use the images in any way, unless you have written permission signed by an authorized Pacific Biosciences representative.

Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage (to the extent they do not conflict with the terms of this Agreement), you may use the images on the Site solely for (a) editorial use by press and/or industry analysts, (b) in connection with a normal, peer-reviewed, scientific publication, book or presentation, or the like. You may not alter or modify any image, in whole or in part, for any reason. You may not use any image in a manner that misrepresents the associated Pacific Biosciences product, service or technology or any associated characteristics, data, or properties thereof. You also may not use any image in a manner that denotes some representation or warranty (express, implied or statutory) from Pacific Biosciences of the product, service or technology. The rights granted by this Agreement are personal to you and are not transferable by you to another party.

You, and not Pacific Biosciences, are responsible for your use of the images. You acknowledge and agree that any misuse of the images or breach of this Agreement will cause Pacific Biosciences irreparable harm. Pacific Biosciences is either an owner or licensee of the image, and not an agent for the owner. You agree to give Pacific Biosciences a credit line as follows: "Courtesy of Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA" and also include any other credits or acknowledgments noted by Pacific Biosciences. You must include any copyright notice originally included with the images on all copies.

IMAGES ARE PROVIDED BY Pacific Biosciences ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. Pacific Biosciences DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OWNERSHIP, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL Pacific Biosciences BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE IMAGES.

You agree that Pacific Biosciences may terminate your access to and use of the images located on the PacificBiosciences.com website at any time and without prior notice, if it considers you to have violated any of the terms of this Image Use Agreement. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Pacific Biosciences, its officers, directors, employees, agents, licensors, suppliers and any third party information providers to the Site from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the terms of this Image Use Agreement or Pacific Biosciences' termination of your access to or use of the Site. Termination will not affect Pacific Biosciences' rights or your obligations which accrued before the termination.

I have read and understand, and agree to, the Image Usage Agreement.

I disagree and would like to return to the Pacific Biosciences home page.

Pacific Biosciences
Contact:
Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Tandem repeats lead to sequence assembly errors and impose multi-level challenges for genome and protein databases.

The widespread occurrence of repetitive stretches of DNA in genomes of organisms across the tree of life imposes fundamental challenges for sequencing, genome assembly, and automated annotation of genes and proteins. This multi-level problem can lead to errors in genome and protein databases that are often not recognized or acknowledged. As a consequence, end users working with sequences with repetitive regions are faced with ‘ready-to-use’ deposited data whose trustworthiness is difficult to determine, let alone to quantify. Here, we provide a review of the problems associated with tandem repeat sequences that originate from different stages during the sequencing-assembly-annotation-deposition workflow, and…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Convergent horizontal gene transfer and cross-talk of mobile nucleic acids in parasitic plants.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the movement and genomic integration of DNA across species boundaries, is commonly associated with bacteria and other microorganisms, but functional HGT (fHGT) is increasingly being recognized in heterotrophic parasitic plants that obtain their nutrients and water from their host plants through direct haustorial feeding. Here, in the holoparasitic stem parasite Cuscuta, we identify 108?transcribed and probably functional HGT events in Cuscuta campestris and related species, plus 42?additional regions with host-derived transposon, pseudogene and non-coding sequences. Surprisingly, 18?Cuscuta fHGTs were acquired from the same gene families by independent HGT events in Orobanchaceae parasites, and the majority are…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Convergent evolution of linked mating-type loci in basidiomycetes: an ancient fusion event that has stood the test of time

Sexual development is a key evolutionary innovation of eukaryotes. In many species, mating involves interaction between compatible mating partners that can undergo cell and nuclear fusion and subsequent steps of development including meiosis. Mating compatibility in fungi is governed by mating type determinants, which are localized at mating type (MAT) loci. In basidiomycetes, the ancestral state is hypothesized to be tetrapolar (bifactorial), with two genetically unlinked MAT loci containing homeodomain transcription factor genes (HD locus) and pheromone and pheromone receptor genes (P/R locus), respectively. Alleles at both loci must differ between mating partners for completion of sexual development. However, there…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Ptr1 locus of Solanum lycopersicoides confers resistance to race 1 strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum by recognizing the type III effectors AvrRpt2/RipBN.

Race 1 strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, which cause bacterial speck disease of tomato, are becoming increasingly common and no simply-inherited genetic resistance to such strains is known. We discovered that a locus in Solanum lycopersicoides, termed Pseudomonas tomato race 1 (Ptr1), confers resistance to race 1 Pst strains by detecting the activity of type III effector AvrRpt2. In Arabidopsis, AvrRpt2 degrades the RIN4 protein thereby activating RPS2-mediated immunity. Using site-directed mutagenesis of AvrRpt2 we found that, like RPS2, activation of Ptr1 requires AvrRpt2 proteolytic activity. Ptr1 also detected the activity of AvrRpt2 homologs from diverse bacteria including one…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Lateral transfers of large DNA fragments spread functional genes among grasses.

A fundamental tenet of multicellular eukaryotic evolution is that vertical inheritance is paramount, with natural selection acting on genetic variants transferred from parents to offspring. This lineal process means that an organism’s adaptive potential can be restricted by its evolutionary history, the amount of standing genetic variation, and its mutation rate. Lateral gene transfer (LGT) theoretically provides a mechanism to bypass many of these limitations, but the evolutionary importance and frequency of this process in multicellular eukaryotes, such as plants, remains debated. We address this issue by assembling a chromosome-level genome for the grass Alloteropsis semialata, a species surmised to…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Large-scale ruminant genome sequencing provides insights into their evolution and distinct traits.

The ruminants are one of the most successful mammalian lineages, exhibiting morphological and habitat diversity and containing several key livestock species. To better understand their evolution, we generated and analyzed de novo assembled genomes of 44 ruminant species, representing all six Ruminantia families. We used these genomes to create a time-calibrated phylogeny to resolve topological controversies, overcoming the challenges of incomplete lineage sorting. Population dynamic analyses show that population declines commenced between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, which is concomitant with expansion in human populations. We also reveal genes and regulatory elements that possibly contribute to the evolution of the…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (“Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens”) uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. “Ca E. kahalalidefaciens” has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

De novo genome assembly of the endangered Acer yangbiense, a plant species with extremely small populations endemic to Yunnan Province, China.

Acer yangbiense is a newly described critically endangered endemic maple tree confined to Yangbi County in Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was included in a programme for rescuing the most threatened species in China, focusing on “plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)”.We generated 64, 94, and 110 Gb of raw DNA sequences and obtained a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. yangbiense through a combination of Pacific Biosciences Single-molecule Real-time, Illumina HiSeq X, and Hi-C mapping, respectively. The final genome assembly is ~666 Mb, with 13 chromosomes covering ~97% of the genome and scaffold N50 sizes of 45 Mb.…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromulinavorax destructans, a pathogen of microzooplankton that provides a window into the enigmatic candidate phylum Dependentiae.

Members of the major candidate phylum Dependentiae (a.k.a. TM6) are widespread across diverse environments from showerheads to peat bogs; yet, with the exception of two isolates infecting amoebae, they are only known from metagenomic data. The limited knowledge of their biology indicates that they have a long evolutionary history of parasitism. Here, we present Chromulinavorax destructans (Strain SeV1) the first isolate of this phylum to infect a representative from a widespread and ecologically significant group of heterotrophic flagellates, the microzooplankter Spumella elongata (Strain CCAP 955/1). Chromulinavorax destructans has a reduced 1.2 Mb genome that is so specialized for infection that…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Capacity to utilize raffinose dictates pneumococcal disease phenotype.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx, but it also causes serious and invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, as well as less serious but highly prevalent infections such as otitis media. We have previously shown that closely related pneumococci (of the same capsular serotype and multilocus sequence type [ST]) can display distinct pathogenic profiles in mice that correlate with clinical isolation site (e.g., blood versus ear), suggesting stable niche adaptation within a clonal lineage. This has provided an opportunity to identify determinants of disease tropism. Genomic analysis identified 17 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome of Crucihimalaya himalaica, a close relative of Arabidopsis, shows ecological adaptation to high altitude.

Crucihimalaya himalaica, a close relative of Arabidopsis and Capsella, grows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) about 4,000 m above sea level and represents an attractive model system for studying speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environments. We assembled a draft genome sequence of 234.72 Mb encoding 27,019 genes and investigated its origin and adaptive evolutionary mechanisms. Phylogenomic analyses based on 4,586 single-copy genes revealed that C. himalaica is most closely related to Capsella (estimated divergence 8.8 to 12.2 Mya), whereas both species form a sister clade to Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, from which they diverged between 12.7 and 17.2…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A New Species of the ?-Proteobacterium Francisella, F. adeliensis Sp. Nov., Endocytobiont in an Antarctic Marine Ciliate and Potential Evolutionary Forerunner of Pathogenic Species.

The study of the draft genome of an Antarctic marine ciliate, Euplotes petzi, revealed foreign sequences of bacterial origin belonging to the ?-proteobacterium Francisella that includes pathogenic and environmental species. TEM and FISH analyses confirmed the presence of a Francisella endocytobiont in E. petzi. This endocytobiont was isolated and found to be a new species, named F. adeliensis sp. nov.. F. adeliensis grows well at wide ranges of temperature, salinity, and carbon dioxide concentrations implying that it may colonize new organisms living in deeply diversified habitats. The F. adeliensis genome includes the igl and pdp gene sets (pdpC and pdpE…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

In-depth analysis of the genome of Trypanosoma evansi, an etiologic agent of surra.

Trypanosoma evansi is the causative agent of the animal trypanosomiasis surra, a disease with serious economic burden worldwide. The availability of the genome of its closely related parasite Trypanosoma brucei allows us to compare their genetic and evolutionarily shared and distinct biological features. The complete genomic sequence of the T. evansi YNB strain was obtained using a combination of genomic and transcriptomic sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analysis. The genome size of the T. evansi YNB strain was 35.2 Mb, showing 96.59% similarity in sequence and 88.97% in scaffold alignment with T. brucei. A total of 8,617 protein-coding genes,…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Multiple modes of convergent adaptation in the spread of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus.

The selection pressure exerted by herbicides has led to the repeated evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds. The evolution of herbicide resistance on contemporary timescales in turn provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate key questions about the genetics of adaptation, in particular the relative importance of adaptation from new mutations, standing genetic variation, or geographic spread of adaptive alleles through gene flow. Glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus poses one of the most significant threats to crop yields in the Midwestern United States, with both agricultural populations and herbicide resistance only recently emerging in Canada. To understand the evolutionary mechanisms driving the spread…

Read More »

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A siphonous macroalgal genome suggests convergent functions of homeobox genes in algae and land plants.

Genome evolution and development of unicellular, multinucleate macroalgae (siphonous algae) are poorly known, although various multicellular organisms have been studied extensively. To understand macroalgal developmental evolution, we assembled the ~26?Mb genome of a siphonous green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, with high contiguity, containing 9,311 protein-coding genes. Molecular phylogeny using 107 nuclear genes indicates that the diversification of the class Ulvophyceae, including C. lentillifera, occurred before the split of the Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. Compared with other green algae, the TALE superclass of homeobox genes, which expanded in land plants, shows a series of lineage-specific duplications in this siphonous macroalga. Plant hormone signalling…

Read More »

1 2

Subscribe for blog updates:

Archives

Press Release

Pacific Biosciences Announces New Chief Financial Officer

Monday, September 14, 2020

Stay
Current

Visit our blog »