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Thursday, August 27, 2020

Case Study: Improving precision medicine studies in Asia using ethnicity-specific human reference genomes and PacBio long-read sequencing

Several new high-quality human genome assemblies produce ethnicity-specific reference sequences and show how scientists can use this genetic information to improve precision medicine studies in Asian sub- populations. These projects demonstrate how long- read SMRT Sequencing provides robust detection of polymorphic structural variants in clinically relevant gene coding regions and phases variants into haplotypes.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Tandem repeats lead to sequence assembly errors and impose multi-level challenges for genome and protein databases.

The widespread occurrence of repetitive stretches of DNA in genomes of organisms across the tree of life imposes fundamental challenges for sequencing, genome assembly, and automated annotation of genes and proteins. This multi-level problem can lead to errors in genome and protein databases that are often not recognized or acknowledged. As a consequence, end users working with sequences with repetitive regions are faced with ‘ready-to-use’ deposited data whose trustworthiness is difficult to determine, let alone to quantify. Here, we provide a review of the problems associated with tandem repeat sequences that originate from different stages during the sequencing-assembly-annotation-deposition workflow, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The bracteatus pineapple genome and domestication of clonally propagated crops.

Domestication of clonally propagated crops such as pineapple from South America was hypothesized to be a ‘one-step operation’. We sequenced the genome of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus CB5 and assembled 513?Mb into 25 chromosomes with 29,412 genes. Comparison of the genomes of CB5, F153 and MD2 elucidated the genomic basis of fiber production, color formation, sugar accumulation and fruit maturation. We also resequenced 89 Ananas genomes. Cultivars ‘Smooth Cayenne’ and ‘Queen’ exhibited ancient and recent admixture, while ‘Singapore Spanish’ supported a one-step operation of domestication. We identified 25 selective sweeps, including a strong sweep containing a pair of tandemly duplicated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification and characterization of chicken circovirus from commercial broiler chickens in China.

Circoviruses are found in many species, including mammals, birds, lower vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, there are no reports of circovirus-induced diseases in chickens. In this study, we identified a new strain of chicken circovirus (CCV) by PacBio third-generation sequencing samples from chickens with acute gastroenteritis in a Shandong commercial broiler farm in China. The complete genome of CCV was verified by inverse PCR. Genomic analysis revealed that CCV codes two inverse open reading frames (ORFs), and a potential stem-loop structure was present at the 5′ end with a structure typical of a circular virus. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

De novo assembly of a wild pear (Pyrus betuleafolia) genome.

China is the origin and evolutionary centre of Oriental pears. Pyrus betuleafolia is a wild species native to China and distributed in the northern region, and it is widely used as rootstock. Here, we report the de novo assembly of the genome of P. betuleafolia-Shanxi Duli using an integrated strategy that combines PacBio sequencing, BioNano mapping and chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing. The genome assembly size was 532.7 Mb, with a contig N50 of 1.57 Mb. A total of 59 552 protein-coding genes and 247.4 Mb of repetitive sequences were annotated for this genome. The expansion genes in P. betuleafolia were significantly enriched in secondary metabolism,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study of Growth and Body-Shape-Related Traits in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) Using ddRAD Sequencing.

Large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is an economically important marine fish species of China. Due to overfishing and marine pollution, the wild stocks of this croaker have collapsed in the past decades. Meanwhile, the cultured croaker is facing the difficulties of reduced genetic diversity and low growth rate. To explore the molecular markers related to the growth traits of croaker and providing the related SNPs for the marker-assisted selection, we used double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to dissect the genetic bases of growth traits in a cultured population and identify the SNPs that associated with important growth traits by…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosome-level reference genome of X12, a highly virulent race of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) is a major pest of soybean that is spreading across major soybean production regions worldwide. Increased SCN virulence has recently been observed in both the United States and China. However, no study has reported a genome assembly for H. glycines at the chromosome scale. Herein, the first chromosome-level reference genome of X12, an unusual SCN race with high infection ability, is presented. Using whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing, PacBio sequencing, Illumina paired-end sequencing, 10X Genomics linked reads and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) genome scaffolding techniques, a 141.01-Mb assembled genome was obtained with scaffold and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome assembly provides insights into the genome evolution and flowering regulation of orchardgrass.

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is an important forage grass for cultivating livestock worldwide. Here, we report an ~1.84-Gb chromosome-scale diploid genome assembly of orchardgrass, with a contig N50 of 0.93 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 6.08 Mb and a super-scaffold N50 of 252.52 Mb, which is the first chromosome-scale assembled genome of a cool-season forage grass. The genome includes 40 088 protein-coding genes, and 69% of the assembled sequences are transposable elements, with long terminal repeats (LTRs) being the most abundant. The LTRretrotransposons may have been activated and expanded in the grass genome in response to environmental changes during the Pleistocene between 0 and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Insights into transcriptional characteristics and homoeolog expression bias of embryo and de-embryonated kernels in developing grain through RNA-Seq and Iso-Seq.

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid, and the transcriptional characteristics of the wheat embryo and endosperm during grain development remain unclear. To analyze the transcriptome, we performed isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) for wheat grain and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) for the embryo and de-embryonated kernels. The differential regulation between the embryo and de-embryonated kernels was found to be greater than the difference between the two time points for each tissue. Exactly 2264 and 4790 tissue-specific genes were found at 14 days post-anthesis (DPA), while 5166 and 3784 genes were found at 25 DPA in the embryo and de-embryonated kernels, respectively. Genes expressed…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles synthesizing bacterium isolated from Arctic Ocean sediments

Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesizing bacterium, was isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment. Here we describe the complete genome of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13. The complete genome contains 4,040,012?bp with 66.66?mol%?G?+?C content, including one circular chromosome of 3,231,929?bp (67.45?mol%?G?+?C content), and eight plasmids with length ranging from 24,536?bp to 199,685?bp. The genome contains 3835 protein-coding genes (CDSs), 49 tRNA genes, as well as 3 rRNA operons as 16S-23S-5S rRNA. Based on the gene annotation and Swiss-Prot analysis, a total of 15 genes belonging to 11 kinds, including silver exporting P-type ATPase (SilP), alkaline phosphatase, nitroreductase, thioredoxin reductase, NADPH dehydrogenase…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Rapid evolution of a-gliadin gene family revealed by analyzing Gli-2 locus regions of wild emmer wheat.

a-Gliadins are a major group of gluten proteins in wheat flour that contribute to the end-use properties for food processing and contain major immunogenic epitopes that can cause serious health-related issues including celiac disease (CD). a-Gliadins are also the youngest group of gluten proteins and are encoded by a large gene family. The majority of the gene family members evolved independently in the A, B, and D genomes of different wheat species after their separation from a common ancestral species. To gain insights into the origin and evolution of these complex genes, the genomic regions of the Gli-2 loci encoding…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

RNA sequencing: the teenage years.

Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an indispensable tool for transcriptome-wide analysis of differential gene expression and differential splicing of mRNAs. However, as next-generation sequencing technologies have developed, so too has RNA-seq. Now, RNA-seq methods are available for studying many different aspects of RNA biology, including single-cell gene expression, translation (the translatome) and RNA structure (the structurome). Exciting new applications are being explored, such as spatial transcriptomics (spatialomics). Together with new long-read and direct RNA-seq technologies and better computational tools for data analysis, innovations in RNA-seq are contributing to a fuller understanding of RNA biology, from questions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Large Fragment Deletions Induced by Cas9 Cleavage While Not in BEs System in Rabbit

CRISPR-Cas9 and BEs system are poised to become the gene editing tool of choice in clinical contexts, however large fragment deletion was found in Cas9-mediated mutation cells without animal level validation. By analyzing 16 gene-edited rabbit lines (including 112 rabbits) generated using SpCas9, BEs, xCas9 and xCas9-BEs with long-range PCR genotyping and long-read sequencing by PacBio platform, we show that extending thousands of bases fragment deletions in single-guide RNA/Cas9 and xCas9 system mutation rabbit, but few large deletions were found in BEs-induced mutation rabbits. We firstly validated that no large fragment deletion induced by BEs system at animal level, suggesting…

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