Recent advances in sequencing chemistry and software in the Sequel II System enable generating highly accurate long reads that are up to 25 kb in length with >99% accuracy. The high quality HiFi reads are suitable for variant detection of all types, from single nucleotides to structural variants. PacBio offers an end-to-end solution from sample preparation to data analysis. However, library construction is still a bottleneck making it difficult to implement into a high-throughput workflow for sequencing large number of samples. Input DNA requirements, DNA shearing and size-selection/fractionation are the most critical and challenging steps in the current procedure. In…
Shane Brubaker from renewable oil manufacturer Solazyme reports using the PacBio system to sequence the genome of a GC-rich strain of algae that couldn’t be fully assembled with short-read sequence data. He notes that CCS reads exceed Sanger quality at significantly lower cost.
Winston Timp from Johns Hopkins University studies the metabolism of hummingbirds, which sustain the highest metabolic rates among all vertebrates. Notably, hummingbirds can switch rapidly between a fuel of lipids to newly ingested sugars. This remarkable metabolism is supported by enzymes which operate at the extreme limit of catalytic efficiency. Understanding the molecular basis of enzymatic action will provide a foundation enabling rational engineering of metabolic circuits in other systems. To do this, Dr. Timp and his team generated a de novo transcriptome of the hummingbird liver using the Iso-Seq method. Characterization of the resulting protein coding sequences provides clues…
In this poster presentation, PacBio scientist Ellen Paxinos describes an improved algorithm for circular consensus reads. Using this new algorithm, dubbed CCS2, it is possible to reach arbitrarily high quality across longer insert lengths at a lower cost and higher throughput than Sanger Sequencing. She shows results from the application of CCS2 to the characterization of the HIV-1 K103N drug-resistance associated mutation, which is both important clinically, and represents a challenge due to regional sequence context.
In this poster presentation, PacBio scientist Richard Hall describes a collaboration with the University of Minnesota to use long-read metagenomic profiling with SMRT Sequencing to analyze the gut microbiome of a patient who had undergone a fecal transplant after chronic C. difficile infection.
Steve Kujawa from PacBio presents an AGBT poster reporting a study that characterized the use of SMRT Sequencing for the detection of low-frequency somatic variants. A multiplexed reference standard was amplified using the Multiplicom assay and sequenced on both the PacBio RS II and MiSeq System. Results indicate good concordance between the sequencing platforms, even at very low mutation frequencies.
In this AGBT poster, Cheryl Heiner from PacBio describes results from a variety of experiments optimizing a protocol for full-length 16S amplification for SMRT Sequencing.
PacBio’s Jenny Ekholm presents this ASHG 2016 poster on a new method being developed that enriches for unamplified DNA and uses SMRT Sequencing to characterize repeat expansion disorders. Incorporating the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target specific genes allows for amplification-free enrichment to preserve epigenetic information and avoid PCR bias. Internal studies have shown that the approach can successfully be used to target and sequence the CAG repeat responsible for Huntington’s disease, the repeat associated with ALS, and more. The approach allows for pooling many samples and sequencing with a single SMRT Cell.
Melissa Laird Smith discussed how the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai uses long-read sequencing for translational research. She gave several examples of targeted sequencing projects run on the Sequel System including CYP2D6, phased mutations of GLA in Fabry’s disease, structural variation breakpoint validation in glioblastoma, and full-length immune profiling of TCR sequences.
This tutorial provides an overview of the Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) analysis application. The CCS algorithm is used in applications that require distinguishing closely related DNA molecules in the same sample. Applications of CCS include profiling microbial communities, resolving viral populations and accurately identifying somatic variations within heterogeneous tumor cells. This tutorial covers features of SMRT Link v5.0.0.
Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions (adenomas) is crucial to reduce mortality rates. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a non-invasive CRC screening test that detects the blood-derived protein hemoglobin. However, FIT sensitivity is suboptimal especially in detection of CRC precursor lesions. As adenoma-to-carcinoma progression is accompanied by alternative splicing, tumor-specific proteins derived from alternatively spliced RNA transcripts might serve as candidate biomarkers for CRC detection.
At AGBT 2017, Lars Paulin from the University of Helsinki presented this poster on whole genome sequencing of the virus responsible for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare and dangerous brain infection. His team used long amplicon analysis to resolve the whole virus genome from three patient samples, pooled them for SMRT Sequencing, and identified variants and rearrangements. This work represents the first time the viral genome was sequenced from patients.
SMRT Sequencing is a DNA sequencing technology characterized by long read lengths and high consensus accuracy, regardless of the sequence complexity or GC content of the DNA sample. These characteristics can be harnessed to address medically relevant genes, mRNA transcripts, and other genomic features that are otherwise difficult or impossible to resolve. I will describe examples for such new clinical research in diverse areas, including full-length gene sequencing with allelic haplotype phasing, gene/pseudogene discrimination, sequencing extreme DNA contexts, high-resolution pharmacogenomics, biomarker discovery, structural variant resolution, full-length mRNA isoform cataloging, and direct methylation detection.
Tremendous flexibility is maintained in the human proteome via alternative splicing, and cancer genomes often subvert this flexibility to promote survival. Identification and annotation of cancer-specific mRNA isoforms is critical to understanding how mutations in the genome affect the biology of cancer cells. While microarrays and other NGS-based methods have become useful for studying transcriptomes, these technologies yield short, fragmented transcripts that remain a challenge for accurate, complete reconstruction of splice variants. The Iso-Seq method developed at PacBio offers the only solution for direct sequencing of full-length, single-molecule cDNA sequences needed to discover biomarkers for early detection and cancer stratification,…