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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene macrolactam sceliphrolactam in a Streptomyces strain isolated from mangrove sediment.

Streptomyces are a genus of Actinobacteria capable of producing structurally diverse natural products. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a biosynthetically talented Streptomyces (Streptomyces sp. SD85) from tropical mangrove sediments. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that Streptomyces sp. SD85 harbors at least 52 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which constitute 21.2% of the 8.6-Mb genome. When cultivated under lab conditions, Streptomyces sp. SD85 produces sceliphrolactam, a 26-membered polyene macrolactam with unknown biosynthetic origin. Genome mining yielded a putative sceliphrolactam BGC (sce) that encodes a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) system, several ß-amino acid starter biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and transcriptional regulators.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of the SN35N strain-specific exopolysaccharide encoded in the whole circular genome of a plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum.

Lactobacillus plantarum SN35N, which has been previously isolated from pear, secretes exopolysaccharide (EPS). The aim of the present study is to characterize the EPS chemically and to find the EPS-biosynthesizing gene cluster. The present study demonstrates that the strain produces an acidic EPS carrying phosphate residue, which is composed of glucose, galactose, and mannose at a molecular ratio of 15.0?:?5.7?:?1.0. We also show that acidic EPS strongly inhibits the catalytic activity of hyaluronidase (EC 3.2.1.35), promoting an inflammatory reaction. In the present study, we also determined the complete genome sequence of the SN35N strain, demonstrating that the genome is a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus SLC13, isolated from mustard pickles, a potential probiotic strain with antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

Lactobacillus pentosus SLC13 is a high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the ability to grow in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. SLC13 was isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. To better understand the molecular base for its antimicrobial activity and high EPS production, entire genome of SLC13 was determined by PacBio SMRT sequencing.L. pentosus SLC13 contains a genome with a 3,520,510-bp chromosome and a 62,498-bp plasmid. GC content of the complete genome was 46.5% and that of plasmid pSLC13 was 41.3%. Sequences were annotated at the RAST prokaryotic genome annotation server, and the results showed that…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The novel phages phiCD5763 and phiCD2955 represent two groups of big plasmidial Siphoviridae phages of Clostridium difficile.

Until recently, Clostridium difficile phages were limited to Myoviruses and Siphoviruses of medium genome length (32–57 kb). Here we report the finding of phiCD5763, a Siphovirus with a large extrachromosomal circular genome (132.5 kb, 172 ORFs) and a large capsid (205.6 ± 25.6 nm in diameter) infecting MLST Clade 1 strains of C. difficile. Two subgroups of big phage genomes similar to phiCD5763 were identified in 32 NAPCR1/RT012/ST-54 C. difficile isolates from Costa Rica and in whole genome sequences (WGS) of 41 C. difficile isolates of Clades 1, 2, 3, and 4 from Canada, USA, UK, Belgium, Iraq, and China.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis 157 isolated from Eucommia ulmoides with pathogenic bacteria inhibiting and lignocellulolytic enzymes production by SSF.

Bacillus velezensis 157 was isolated from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides, and exhibited antagonistic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Moreover, B. velezensis 157 also showed various lignocellulolytic activities including cellulase, xylanase, a-amylase, and pectinase, which had the ability of using the agro-industrial waste (soybean meal, wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, maize flour and maize straw) under solid-state fermentation and obtained several industrially valuable enzymes. Soybean meal appeared to be the most efficient substrate for the single fermentation of B. velezensis 157. Highest yield of pectinase (19.15 ± 2.66 U g-1), cellulase (46.69 ± 1.19 U g-1) and amylase (2097.18 ± 15.28 U g-1) was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence and genomic characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1 (11869BP).

Our body has natural defense systems to protect against potentially harmful microbes, including the physical and chemical barriers of the intestinal epithelium (Corfield et al., 2000). The physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium protects the host against pathogenic microbes (Anderson et al., 1993), and the intestinal mucosa coated with mucus excretes pathogens from the intestinal tract (Corfield et al., 2000).

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Probiotic and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 and Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 isolated from infant feces.

A total of 22 Lactobacillus strains, which were isolated from infant feces were evaluated for their probiotic potential along with resistance to low pH and bile salts. Eight isolates (L. reuteri 3M02 and 3M03, L. gasseri 4M13, 4R22, 5R01, 5R02, and 5R13, and L. rhamnosus 4B15) with high tolerance to acid and bile salts, and ability to adhere to the intestine were screened from 22 strains. Further, functional properties of 8 Lactobacillus strains, such as anti-oxidation, inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-inflammation were evaluated. The properties were strain-specific. Particularly, two strains of L. rhamnosus, 4B15 (4B15) and L. gasseri…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of the streptothricin and tunicamycin biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in Streptomyces sp. strain fd1-xmd.

The genus Streptomyces have been highly regarded for their important source of natural products. Combined with the technology of genome sequencing and mining, we could identify the active ingredients from fermentation broth quickly. Here, we report on Streptomyces sp. strain fd1-xmd, which was isolated from a soil sample collected in Shanghai. Interestingly, the fermentation broth derived from this strain demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and eukaryotes. To identify the antimicrobial substances and their biosynthetic gene clusters, we sequenced the fd1-xmd strain and obtained a genome 7,929,999 bp in length. The average GC content of the chromosome was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A sub-population of group A Streptococcus elicits a population-wide production of bacteriocins to establish dominance in the host.

Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate gene expression. We identified a group A Streptococcus (GAS) strain possessing the QS system sil, which produces functional bacteriocins, through a sequential signaling pathway integrating host and bacterial signals. Host cells infected by GAS release asparagine (ASN), which is sensed by the bacteria to alter its gene expression and rate of proliferation. We show that upon ASN sensing, GAS upregulates expression of the QS autoinducer peptide SilCR. Initial SilCR expression activates the autoinduction cycle for further SilCR production. The autoinduction process propagates throughout the GAS population, resulting in bacteriocin production. Subcutaneous co-injection of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of Lactobacillus amylolyticus L6 as potential probiotics based on genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes

The potential of newly isolated Lactobacillus amylolyticus L6 as probiotics was investigated based on the whole genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes. With Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM as positive control, several established methods of evaluating potential probiotics were performed on L. amylolyticus L6. The results indicated that L. amylolyticus L6 retained higher viability in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and it also had strong inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria. Meanwhile, the candidate probiotics exhibited similar adhesion level as that of L. acidophilus NCFM in vitro test. As for carbohydrate utilization profile, L. amylolyticus L6 had high ability of utilizing raffinose and stachyose which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome and transcriptome of the natural isopropanol producer Clostridium beijerinckii DSM6423.

There is a worldwide interest for sustainable and environmentally-friendly ways to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Among them, the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) or Isopropanol, Butanol and Ethanol (IBE) by anaerobic fermentation has already a long industrial history. Isopropanol has recently received a specific interest and the best studied natural isopropanol producer is C. beijerinckii DSM 6423 (NRRL B-593). This strain metabolizes sugars into a mix of IBE with only low concentrations of ethanol produced (

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide comparison reveals a probiotic strain Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of olive flounder (Paralichthys Olivaceus) harboring genes supporting probiotic action.

Our previous study has shown that dietary supplementation with Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 can enhance the growth of olive flounder and its resistance against streptococcal infection. The objective of the present study was to use comparative genomics tools to investigate genomic characteristics of strain WFLU12 and the presence of genes supporting its probiotic action using sequenced genomes of L. lactis strains. Dispensable and singleton genes of strain WFLU12 were found to be more enriched in genes associated with metabolism (e.g., energy production and conversion, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism) than pooled dispensable and singleton genes in other L. lactis strains, reflecting…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic structural variations affecting virulence during clonal expansion of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe.

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) biovar 3 caused pandemic bacterial canker of Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa since 2008. In Europe, the disease spread rapidly in the kiwifruit cultivation areas from a single introduction. In this study, we investigated the genomic diversity of Psa biovar 3 strains during the primary clonal expansion in Europe using single molecule real-time (SMRT), Illumina and Sanger sequencing technologies. We recorded evidences of frequent mobilization and loss of transposon Tn6212, large chromosome inversions, and ectopic integration of IS sequences (remarkably ISPsy31, ISPsy36, and ISPsy37). While no phenotype change associated with Tn6212 mobilization could be detected,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

In silico exploration of Red Sea Bacillus genomes for natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.

The increasing spectrum of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major global public health concern, necessitating discovery of novel antimicrobial agents. Here, members of the genus Bacillus are investigated as a potentially attractive source of novel antibiotics due to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. We specifically focus on a computational analysis of the distinctive biosynthetic potential of Bacillus paralicheniformis strains isolated from the Red Sea, an ecosystem exposed to adverse, highly saline and hot conditions.We report the complete circular and annotated genomes of two Red Sea strains, B. paralicheniformis Bac48 isolated from mangrove mud and B. paralicheniformis Bac84 isolated from microbial…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome analysis reveals the diversity and evolutionary relationships between necrotic enteritis-causing strains of Clostridium perfringens.

Clostridium perfringens causes a range of diseases in animals and humans including necrotic enteritis in chickens and food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. Necrotic enteritis is of concern in commercial chicken production due to the cost of the implementation of infection control measures and to productivity losses. This study has focused on the genomic analysis of a range of chicken-derived C. perfringens isolates, from around the world and from different years. The genomes were sequenced and compared with 20 genomes available from public databases, which were from a diverse collection of isolates from chickens, other animals, and humans. We…

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