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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Dual Role of gnaA in Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram-negative pathogen in hospital-related infections. However, treatment options for A. baumannii infections have become limited due to multidrug resistance. Bacterial virulence is often associated with capsule genes found in the K locus, many of which are essential for biosynthesis of the bacterial envelope. However, the roles of other genes in the K locus remain largely unknown. From an in vitro evolution experiment, we obtained an isolate of the virulent and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain MDR-ZJ06, called MDR-ZJ06M, which has an insertion by the ISAba16 transposon in gnaA (encoding UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C-6 dehydrogenase), a gene found in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Nucleotide Sequences of mcr-4.3-Carrying Plasmids in Acinetobacter baumannii Sequence Type 345 of Human and Food Origin from the Czech Republic, the First Case in Europe.

Here, we describe two plasmids carrying mcr-4.3 in two Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from imported food and a clinical sample. The comparative analysis of these plasmids, with two other plasmids reported in the NCBI database, highlighted the common origin of the plasmidic structure carrying mcr-4.3 This is the first case of the mcr-4.3 gene in a A. baumannii strain isolated from a clinical case in Europe. We hypothesize that food import is initiating the spread in Czech Republic.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Intercellular Transfer of Chromosomal Antimicrobial Resistance Genes between Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Mediated by Prophages.

The spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) among Gram-negative pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii, is primarily mediated by transferable plasmids; however, ARGs are frequently integrated into its chromosome. How ARG gets horizontally incorporated into the chromosome of A. baumannii, and whether it functions as a cause for further spread of ARG, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated intercellular prophage-mediated transfer of chromosomal ARGs without direct cell-cell interaction in A. baumannii We prepared ARG-harboring extracellular DNA (eDNA) components from the culture supernatant of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii NU-60 strain and exposed an antimicrobial-susceptible (AS) A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain to the eDNA…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Klebsiella quasipneumoniae Provides a Window into Carbapenemase Gene Transfer, Plasmid Rearrangements, and Patient Interactions with the Hospital Environment.

Several emerging pathogens have arisen as a result of selection pressures exerted by modern health care. Klebsiella quasipneumoniae was recently defined as a new species, yet its prevalence, niche, and propensity to acquire antimicrobial resistance genes are not fully described. We have been tracking inter- and intraspecies transmission of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene, blaKPC, between bacteria isolated from a single institution. We applied a combination of Illumina and PacBio whole-genome sequencing to identify and compare K. quasipneumoniae from patients and the hospital environment over 10- and 5-year periods, respectively. There were 32 blaKPC-positive K. quasipneumoniae isolates, all of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Detection of VIM-1-Producing Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella enterica Serovars Infantis and Goldcoast at a Breeding Pig Farm in Germany in 2017 and Their Molecular Relationship to Former VIM-1-Producing S. Infantis Isolates in German Livestock Production.

In 2011, VIM-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Escherichia coli were isolated for the first time in four German livestock farms. In 2015/2016, highly related isolates were identified in German pig production. This raised the issue of potential reservoirs for these isolates, the relation of their mobile genetic elements, and potential links between the different affected farms/facilities. In a piglet-producing farm suspicious for being linked to some blaVIM-1 findings in Germany, fecal and environmental samples were examined for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. Newly discovered isolates were subjected to Illumina whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and S1 pulsed-field gel…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Diverse Vectors and Mechanisms Spread New Delhi Metallo-ß-Lactamases among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the Greater Boston Area.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamases (NDMs) are an uncommon but emerging cause of carbapenem resistance in the United States. Genomic factors promoting their domestic spread remain poorly characterized. A prospective genomic surveillance program among Boston-area hospitals identified multiple new occurrences of NDM-carrying strains of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae complex in inpatient and outpatient settings, representing the first occurrences of NDM-mediated resistance since initiating genomic surveillance in 2011. Cases included domestic patients with no international exposures. PacBio sequencing of isolates identified strain characteristics, resistance genes, and the complement of mobile vectors mediating spread. Analyses revealed a common 3,114-bp region containing the blaNDM…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Evolution of a clade of Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 1, lineage 1 via acquisition of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistance genes and dispersion of ISAba1.

Resistance to carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics is a critical problem in Acinetobacter baumannii, particularly when genes conferring resistance are acquired by multiply or extensively resistant members of successful globally distributed clonal complexes, such as global clone 1 (GC1) . Here, we investigate the evolution of an expanding clade of lineage 1 of the GC1 complex via repeated acquisition of carbapenem- and aminoglycoside-resistance genes. Lineage 1 arose in the late 1970s and the Tn6168/OCL3 clade arose in the late 1990s from an ancestor that had already acquired resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Between 2000 and 2002, two distinct subclades have…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Sequence of a Novel Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas putida Strain Carrying Two Copies of qnrVC6.

This study aimed at identification and characterization of a novel multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain Guangzhou-Ppu420 carrying two copies of qnrVC6 isolated from a hospital in Guangzhou, China, in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Vitek2™ Automated Susceptibility System and Etest™ strips, and whole-genome sequencing facilitated analysis of its multidrug resistance. The genome has a length of 6,031,212?bp and an average G?+?C content of 62.01%. A total of 5,421 open reading frames were identified, including eight 5S rRNA, seven 16S rRNA, and seven 23S rRNA, and 76 tRNA genes. Importantly, two copies of qnrVC6 gene with three ISCR1 around, a blaVIM-2…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Decreased biofilm formation ability of Acinetobacter baumannii after spaceflight on China’s Shenzhou 11 spacecraft.

China has prepared for construction of a space station by the early 2020s. The mission will require astronauts to stay on the space station for at least 180 days. Microbes isolated from the International Space Station (ISS) have shown profound resistance to clinical antibiotics and environmental stresses. Previous studies have demonstrated that the space environment could affect microbial survival, growth, virulence, biofilms, metabolism, as well as their antibiotic-resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, several studies have reported that astronauts experience a decline in their immunity during long-duration spaceflights. Monitoring microbiomes in the ISS or the spacecraft will be beneficial for the prevention of infection…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of the Wolbachia wAlbB Endosymbiont of Aedes albopictus.

Wolbachia, an alpha-proteobacterium closely related to Rickettsia, is a maternally transmitted, intracellular symbiont of arthropods and nematodes. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are naturally infected with Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB. Cell line Aa23 established from Ae. albopictus embryos retains only wAlbB and is a key model to study host-endosymbiont interactions. We have assembled the complete circular genome of wAlbB from the Aa23 cell line using long-read PacBio sequencing at 500× median coverage. The assembled circular chromosome is 1.48 megabases in size, an increase of more than 300 kb over the published draft wAlbB genome. The annotation of the genome identified 1,205…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of the novel agarolytic Catenovulum-like strain CCB-QB4

Members of the genus Catenovulum are recognized for their ability to degrade algal biomass. Here we report the complete genome of Cantenovulum–like strain CCB-QB4, an agarolytic bacterium isolated from the coastal area of Penang, Malaysia. The sequenced genome is composed of a 5,663,044?bp circular chromosome and a 208,085?bp circular plasmid. It contained 4409 protein coding and 83 RNA genes, including 62 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs. The genome of CCB-QB4 contains many agarases, which correlate with the high capacity of the strain to degrade agar. Genome sequencing of CCB-QB4 reveals gene candidates of potential interest in enzymatic industries or applications in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 revealed genetic bases for survivability at high altitude ecosystem and bioprospection potential.

Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824?bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027?bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of the genome of a Nocardia strain isolated from soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that specifically degrades crude oil and of this biodegradation.

A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3?Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination). The structural features of the genome might provide a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genetic characterization and potential molecular dissemination mechanism of tet(31) gene in Aeromonas caviae from an oxytetracycline wastewater treatment system.

Recently, the rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant was commonly found in Aeromonas salmonicida, Gallibacterium anatis, and Oblitimonas alkaliphila isolated from farming animals and related environment. However, its distribution in other bacteria and potential molecular dissemination mechanism in environment are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism underlying dissemination of tet(31) by analysing the tet(31)-carrying fragments in A. caviae strains isolated from an aerobic biofilm reactor treating oxytetracycline bearing wastewater. Twenty-three A. caviae strains were screened for the tet(31) gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three strains (two harbouring tet(31), one not) were subjected…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Iron-associated protein interaction networks reveal the key functional modules related to survival and virulence of Pasteurella multocida.

Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Comparative iron-associated genes of P. multocida among different animal hosts towards their interaction networks have not been fully revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the iron-associated genes from core- and pan-genomes of fourteen P. multocida strains and to construct iron-associated protein interaction networks using genome-scale network analysis which might be associated with the virulence. Results showed that these fourteen strains had 1587 genes in…

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