July 19, 2019  |  

Lineage-specific methyltransferases define the methylome of the globally disseminated Escherichia coli ST131 clone.

Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a clone of uropathogenic E. coli that has emerged rapidly and disseminated globally in both clinical and community settings. Members of the ST131 lineage from across the globe have been comprehensively characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and pathogenicity, but to date nothing is known about the methylome of these important human pathogens. Here we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing to determine the methylome of E. coli EC958, the most-well-characterized completely sequenced ST131 strain. Our analysis of 52,081 methylated adenines in the genome of EC958 discovered three (m6)A methylation motifs that have not been described previously. Subsequent SMRT sequencing of isogenic knockout mutants identified the two type I methyltransferases (MTases) and one type IIG MTase responsible for (m6)A methylation of novel recognition sites. Although both type I sites were rare, the type IIG sites accounted for more than 12% of all methylated adenines in EC958. Analysis of the distribution of MTase genes across 95 ST131 genomes revealed their prevalence is highly conserved within the ST131 lineage, with most variation due to the presence or absence of mobile genetic elements on which individual MTase genes are located.DNA modification plays a crucial role in bacterial regulation. Despite several examples demonstrating the role of methyltransferase (MTase) enzymes in bacterial virulence, investigation of this phenomenon on a whole-genome scale has remained elusive until now. Here we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to determine the first complete methylome of a strain from the multidrug-resistant E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) lineage. By interrogating the methylome computationally and with further SMRT sequencing of isogenic mutants representing previously uncharacterized MTase genes, we defined the target sequences of three novel ST131-specific MTases and determined the genomic distribution of all MTase target sequences. Using a large collection of 95 previously sequenced ST131 genomes, we identified mobile genetic elements as a major factor driving diversity in DNA methylation patterns. Overall, our analysis highlights the potential for DNA methylation to dramatically influence gene regulation at the transcriptional level within a well-defined E. coli clone. Copyright © 2015 Forde et al.


July 19, 2019  |  

Sequencing of Australian wild rice genomes reveals ancestral relationships with domesticated rice.

The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here, we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A, and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short- and long-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here, we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice (O. sativa) than to the other Australian wild populations. Analysis of 4643 genes in the A genome clade showed that the Australian annual, O. meridionalis, and related perennial taxa have the most divergent (around 3 million years) genome sequences relative to domesticated rice. A test for admixture showed possible introgression into the Australian Taxon A (diverged around 1.6 million years ago) especially from the wild indica/O. nivara clade in Asia. These results demonstrate that northern Australia may be the centre of diversity of the A genome Oryza and suggest the possibility that this might also be the centre of origin of this group and represent an important resource for rice improvement.© 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Mechanisms involved in acquisition of blaNDM genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY plasmids.

blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A and ISCR1 may have been involved in acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterisation of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes amongst species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 55737.

Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces propionic acid as its main fermentation product. Traditionally derived from fossil fuels, environmental and sustainable issues have revived the interest in producing propionic acid using biological resources. Here, we present the closed sequence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 55737, an efficient propionic acid producer. Copyright © 2016 Luna-Flores et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain ATCC 700603.

Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain ATCC 700603, formerly known as K. pneumoniae K6, is known for producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes that can hydrolyze oxyimino-ß-lactams, resulting in resistance to these drugs. We herein report the complete genome of strain ATCC 700603 and show that the ESBL genes are plasmid-encoded. Copyright © 2016 Elliott et al.


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