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October 1, 2018

Long-read sequence capture of the hemoglobin gene clusters across gadid species.

Combining high-throughput sequencing with targeted sequence capture has become an attractive tool to study specific genomic regions of interest. Most studies have so far focused on the exome using short-read technology. These approaches are not designed to capture intergenic regions needed to reconstruct genomic organization, including regulatory regions and gene synteny. Here, we demonstrate the power of combining targeted sequence capture with long-read sequencing technology for comparative genomic analyses of the hemoglobin (Hb) gene clusters across eight species separated by up to 70 million years. Guided by the reference genome assembly of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) together with genome…

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August 24, 2017

Draft genome sequences of two unclassified bacteria, Hydrogenophaga sp. strains IBVHS1 and IBVHS2, isolated from environmental samples.

We report here the draft genome sequences of Hydrogenophaga sp. strains IBVHS1 and IBVHS2, two bacteria assembled from the metagenomes of surface samples from freshwater lakes. The genomes are >95% complete and may represent new species within the Hydrogenophaga genus, indicating a larger diversity than currently identified. Copyright © 2017 Orr et al.

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July 13, 2017

Completed genome sequences of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto B31(NRZ) and closely related patient isolates from Europe.

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is a causative agent of human Lyme borreliosis in the United States and Europe. We report here the completed genome sequences of strain B31 isolated from a tick in the United States and two closely related strains from Europe, PAli and PAbe, which were isolated from patients with erythema migrans and neuroborreliosis, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Margos et al.

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April 27, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Tessaracoccus sp. strain T2.5-30 isolated from 139.5 meters deep on the subsurface of the Iberian Pyritic Belt.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Tessaracoccus sp. strain T2.5-30, which consists of a chromosome with 3.2 Mbp, 70.4% G+C content, and 3,005 coding DNA sequences. The strain was isolated from a rock core retrieved at a depth of 139.5 m in the subsurface of the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Spain). Copyright © 2017 Leandro et al.

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February 8, 2017

Habitat generalists or specialists, insights from comparative genomic analyses of Thermosipho lineages

Thermosipho species inhabit various extreme environments such as marine hydrothermal vents, petroleum reservoirs and terrestrial hot springs. A 16S rRNA phylogeny of available Thermosipho spp. sequences suggested habitat specialists adapted to living in hydrothermal vents only, and habitat generalists inhabiting oil reservoirs, hydrothermal vents and hotsprings. Comparative genomics and recombination analysis of the genomes of 15 Thermosipho isolates separated them into three species with different habitat distributions, the widely distributed T. africanus and the more specialized, T. melanesiensis and T. affectus. The three Thermosipho species can also be differentiated on the basis of genome content. For instance the T. africanus…

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February 1, 2017

Current status of genome sequencing and its applications in aquaculture

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food production sector in agriculture, with great potential to meet projected protein needs of human beings. Aquaculture is facing several challenges, including lack of a sufficient number of genetically improved species, lack of species-specific feeds, high mortality due to diseases and pollution of ecosystems. The rapid development of sequencing technologies has revolutionized biological sciences, and supplied necessary tools to tackle these challenges in aquaculture and thus ensure its sustainability and profitability. So far, draft genomes have been published in over 24 aquaculture species, and used to address important issues related to aquaculture. We briefly review the…

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January 18, 2017

An improved genome assembly uncovers prolific tandem repeats in Atlantic cod.

The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of bases in gaps. The development of long-read sequencing and improved software now enable the generation of more contiguous genome assemblies.By combining data from Illumina, 454 and the longer PacBio sequencing technologies, as well as integrating the results of multiple assembly programs, we have created…

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December 10, 2016

Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) originating from a conventional field in Norway

Here, we present the 3,795,952 bp complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017580.

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August 8, 2016

Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55?Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes…

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May 12, 2016

The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization.

The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find…

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May 1, 2016

TCR sequencing of single cells reactive to DQ2.5-glia-a2 and DQ2.5-glia-?2 reveals clonal expansion and epitope-specific V-gene usage.

CD4+ T cells recognizing dietary gluten epitopes in the context of disease-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 molecules are the key players in celiac disease pathogenesis. Here, we conducted a large-scale single-cell paired T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing study to characterize the TCR repertoire for two homologous immunodominant gluten epitopes, DQ2.5-glia-a2 and DQ2.5-glia-?2, in blood of celiac disease patients after oral gluten challenge. Despite sequence similarity of the epitopes, the TCR repertoires are unique but shared several overall features. We demonstrate that clonally expanded T cells dominate the T-cell responses to both epitopes. Moreover, we find V-gene bias of TRAV26,…

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April 29, 2016

Evolutionary redesign of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) Toll-like receptor repertoire by gene losses and expansions.

Genome sequencing of the teleost Atlantic cod demonstrated loss of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II, an extreme gene expansion of MHC class I and gene expansions and losses in the innate pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family of Toll-like receptors (TLR). In a comparative genomic setting, using an improved version of the genome, we characterize PRRs in Atlantic cod with emphasis on TLRs demonstrating the loss of TLR1/6, TLR2 and TLR5 and expansion of TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR22 and TLR25. We find that Atlantic cod TLR expansions are strongly influenced by diversifying selection likely to increase the detectable ligand…

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April 1, 2015

Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists.

To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7-38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent…

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January 14, 2015

The draft genome of Primula veris yields insights into the molecular basis of heterostyly.

The flowering plant Primula veris is a common spring blooming perennial that is widely cultivated throughout Europe. This species is an established model system in the study of the genetics, evolution, and ecology of heterostylous floral polymorphisms. Despite the long history of research focused on this and related species, the continued development of this system has been restricted due the absence of genomic and transcriptomic resources.We present here a de novo draft genome assembly of P. veris covering 301.8 Mb, or approximately 63% of the estimated 479.22 Mb genome, with an N50 contig size of 9.5 Kb, an N50 scaffold size of…

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December 1, 2014

Dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes between Escherichia coli strains from farm animals and humans by specific plasmid lineages.

Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of ß-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli…

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