The yeast strain SJP-SNU was investigated as a probiotic and was characterized with respect to growth temperature, bile salt resistance, hydrogen sulfide reducing activity, intestinal survival ability and chicken embryo pathogenicity. In addition, we determined the complete genomic and mitochondrial sequences of SJP-SNU and conducted comparative genomics analyses. SJP-SNU grew rapidly at 37 °C and formed colonies on MacConkey agar containing bile salt. SJP-SNU reduced hydrogen sulfide produced by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis and, after being fed to 4-week-old chickens, could be isolated from cecal feces. SJP-SNU did not cause mortality in 10-day-old chicken embryos. From 13 initial contigs, 11 were finally assembled and represented 10 chromosomal sequences and 1 mitochondrial DNA sequence. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that SJP-SNU was a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii. Although SJP-SNU possesses pathogenicity-related genes, they showed very low amino acid sequence identities to those of Candida albicans. Furthermore, SJP-SNU possessed useful genes, such as phytases and cellulase. Thus, SJP-SNU is a useful yeast possessing the basic traits of a probiotic, and further studies to demonstrate its efficacy as a probiotic in the future may be warranted.
Genomic insights into nematicidal activity of a bacterial endophyte, Raoultella ornithinolytica MG against pine wilt nematode.
Pine wilt disease, caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating conifer diseases decimating several species of pine trees on a global scale. Here, we report the draft genome of Raoultella ornithinolytica MG, which is isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng plant as an bacterial endophyte and shows nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus. Our analysis of R. ornithinolytica MG genome showed that it possesses many genes encoding potential nematicidal factors in addition to some secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters that may contribute to the observed nematicidal activity of the strain. Furthermore, the genome was lacking key components of avermectin gene cluster, suggesting that nematicidal activity of the bacterium is not likely due to the famous anthelmintic agent of wide-spread use, avermectin. This genomic information of R. ornithinolytica will provide basis for identification and engineering of genes and their products toward control of pine wilt disease.
Complete genome sequence of Bacillus altitudinis P-10, a potential bioprotectant against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, isolated from rice rhizosphere in Java, Indonesia.
Bacillus altitudinis P-10 was isolated from the rhizosphere of rice grown in an organic rice field and provides strong antagonism against the bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice. Herein, we provide the complete genome sequence and a possible explanation of the antibiotic function of the P-10 strain.