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April 23, 2019

Application Brief: Structural variant detection using whole genome sequencing – Best Practices

With the Sequel II System powered by Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing technology and SMRT Link v7.0, you can affordably and effectively detect structural variants (SVs), copy number variants, and large indels ranging in size from tens to thousands of base pairs. PacBio long-read whole genome sequencing comprehensively resolves variants in an individual with high precision and recall. For population genetics and pedigree studies, joint calling powers rapid discovery of common variants within a sample cohort.

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April 23, 2019

Application Brief: Variant detection using whole genome sequencing with HiFi reads – Best Practices

With highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) from the Sequel II System, powered by Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing technology, you can comprehensively detect variants in a human genome. HiFi reads provide high precision and recall for single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels, structural variants (SVs), and copy number variants (CNVs), including in difficult-to-map repetitive regions.

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March 1, 2019

Tandem-genotypes: robust detection of tandem repeat expansions from long DNA reads.

Tandemly repeated DNA is highly mutable and causes at least 31 diseases, but it is hard to detect pathogenic repeat expansions genome-wide. Here, we report robust detection of human repeat expansions from careful alignments of long but error-prone (PacBio and nanopore) reads to a reference genome. Our method is robust to systematic sequencing errors, inexact repeats with fuzzy boundaries, and low sequencing coverage. By comparing to healthy controls, we prioritize pathogenic expansions within the top 10 out of 700,000 tandem repeats in whole genome sequencing data. This may help to elucidate the many genetic diseases whose causes remain unknown.

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December 1, 2018

Mapping the landscape of tandem repeat variability by targeted long read single molecule sequencing in familial X-linked intellectual disability.

The etiology of more than half of all patients with X-linked intellectual disability remains elusive, despite array-based comparative genomic hybridization, whole exome or genome sequencing. Since short read massive parallel sequencing approaches do not allow the detection of larger tandem repeat expansions, we hypothesized that such expansions could be a hidden cause of X-linked intellectual disability.We selectively captured over 1800 tandem repeats on the X chromosome and characterized them by long read single molecule sequencing in 3 families with idiopathic X-linked intellectual disability. In male DNA samples, full tandem repeat length sequences were obtained for 88-93% of the targets and…

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November 1, 2018

Mitochondrial genomes of two diplectanids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) expose paraphyly of the order Dactylogyridea and extensive tRNA gene rearrangements.

Recent mitochondrial phylogenomics studies have reported a sister-group relationship of the orders Capsalidea and Dactylogyridea, which is inconsistent with previous morphology- and molecular-based phylogenies. As Dactylogyridea mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are currently represented by only one family, to improve the phylogenetic resolution, we sequenced and characterized two dactylogyridean parasites, Lamellodiscus spari and Lepidotrema longipenis, belonging to a non-represented family Diplectanidae.The L. longipenis mitogenome (15,433 bp) contains the standard 36 flatworm mitochondrial genes (atp8 is absent), whereas we failed to detect trnS1, trnC and trnG in L. spari (14,614 bp). Both mitogenomes exhibit unique gene orders (among the Monogenea), with a number…

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November 1, 2018

3D molecular cytology of Hop (Humulus lupulus) meiotic chromosomes reveals non-disomic pairing and segregation, aneuploidy, and genomic structural variation.

Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an important crop worldwide, known as the main flavoring ingredient in beer. The diversifying brewing industry demands variation in flavors, superior process properties, and sustainable agronomics, which are the focus of advanced molecular breeding efforts in hops. Hop breeders have been limited in their ability to create strains with desirable traits, however, because of the unusual and unpredictable inheritance patterns and associated non-Mendelian genetic marker segregation. Cytogenetic analysis of meiotic chromosome behavior has also revealed conspicuous and prevalent occurrences of multiple, atypical, non-disomic chromosome complexes, including those involving autosomes in late prophase. To explore the…

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October 16, 2018

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Characterization of a large, human-specific tandem repeat array associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

In this ASHG workshop presentation, Janet Song of Stanford School of Medicine shared research on resolving a tandem repeat array implicated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. These psychiatric diseases share a number of genomic risk variants, she noted, but scientists continue to search for a specific causal variant in the CACNA1C gene suggested by previous genome-wide association studies. SMRT Sequencing of this region in 16 individuals identified a series of 30-mer repeats, containing a total of about 50 variants. Analysis showed that 10 variants were linked to protective or risk haplotypes. Song aims to study the function of these variants…

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October 1, 2018

Targeted genotyping of variable number tandem repeats with adVNTR.

Whole-genome sequencing is increasingly used to identify Mendelian variants in clinical pipelines. These pipelines focus on single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and also structural variants, while ignoring more complex repeat sequence variants. Here, we consider the problem of genotyping Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs), composed of inexact tandem duplications of short (6-100 bp) repeating units. VNTRs span 3% of the human genome, are frequently present in coding regions, and have been implicated in multiple Mendelian disorders. Although existing tools recognize VNTR carrying sequence, genotyping VNTRs (determining repeat unit count and sequence variation) from whole-genome sequencing reads remains challenging. We describe a method,…

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October 1, 2018

How long are long tandem repeats? A challenge for current methods of whole-genome sequence assembly: The case of satellites in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Repetitive genome regions have been difficult to sequence, mainly because of the comparatively small size of the fragments used in assembly. Satellites or tandem repeats are very abundant in nematodes and offer an excellent playground to evaluate different assembly methods. Here, we compare the structure of satellites found in three different assemblies of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome: the original sequence obtained by Sanger sequencing, an assembly based on PacBio technology, and an assembly using Nanopore sequencing reads. In general, satellites were found in equivalent genomic regions, but the new long-read methods (PacBio and Nanopore) tended to result in longer assembled…

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September 1, 2018

Characterization of a human-specific tandem repeat associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are highly heritable diseases that affect more than 3% of individuals worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have strongly and repeatedly linked risk for both of these neuropsychiatric diseases to a 100 kb interval in the third intron of the human calcium channel gene CACNA1C. However, the causative mutation is not yet known. We have identified a human-specific tandem repeat in this region that is composed of 30 bp units, often repeated hundreds of times. This large tandem repeat is unstable using standard polymerase chain reaction and bacterial cloning techniques, which may have resulted in its incorrect…

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August 1, 2018

STRetch: detecting and discovering pathogenic short tandem repeat expansions.

Short tandem repeat (STR) expansions have been identified as the causal DNA mutation in dozens of Mendelian diseases. Most existing tools for detecting STR variation with short reads do so within the read length and so are unable to detect the majority of pathogenic expansions. Here we present STRetch, a new genome-wide method to scan for STR expansions at all loci across the human genome. We demonstrate the use of STRetch for detecting STR expansions using short-read whole-genome sequencing data at known pathogenic loci as well as novel STR loci. STRetch is open source software, available from github.com/Oshlack/STRetch .

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July 3, 2018

Profiling the genome-wide landscape of tandem repeat expansions

Tandem Repeat (TR) expansions have been implicated in dozens of genetic diseases, including Huntingtontextquoterights Disease, Fragile X Syndrome, and hereditary ataxias. Furthermore, TRs have recently been implicated in a range of complex traits, including gene expression and cancer risk. While the human genome harbors hundreds of thousands of TRs, analysis of TR expansions has been mainly limited to known pathogenic loci. A major challenge is that expanded repeats are beyond the read length of most next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets. We present GangSTR, a novel algorithm for genome-wide profiling of both normal and expanded TRs. GangSTR extracts information from paired-end reads…

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June 28, 2018

Robust detection of tandem repeat expansions from long DNA reads

Tandemly repeated sequences are highly mutable and variable features of genomes. Tandem repeat expansions are responsible for a growing list of human diseases, even though it is hard to determine tandem repeat sequences with current DNA sequencing technology. Recent long-read technologies are promising, because the DNA reads are often longer than the repetitive regions, but are hampered by high error rates. Here, we report robust detection of human repeat expansions from careful alignments of long (PacBio and nanopore) reads to a reference genome. Our method (tandem-genotypes) is robust to systematic sequencing errors, inexact repeats with fuzzy boundaries, and low sequencing…

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