September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Cd(II)-resistant Arthrobacter sp. PGP41, a plant growth-promoting bacterium with potential in microbe-assisted phytoremediation.

Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has great potential for practical applications. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with heavy metal (HM) resistance are important for the implementation of PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of HM-contaminated environments. Arthrobacter sp. PGP41 is a Cd(II)-resistant bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere soils of a Cd(II) hyperaccumulator plant, Solanum nigrum. Strain PGP41 can significantly improve plant seedling and root growth under Cd(II) stress conditions. This bacterium exhibited the ability to produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as well as the ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate, and it possessed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain PGP41. The genome consists of a single chromosome with a G+C content of 65.38% and no plasmids. The genome encodes 3898 genes and contains 49 tRNA and 12 rRNA genes. Multiple genes associated with plant growth promotion were identified in the genome. The whole genome sequence of PGP41 provides information useful for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind plant growth promotion by PGPB and facilitates its potential use as an inoculum in the bioremediation of HM-contaminated environments.

September 22, 2019  |  

Characterization and genomic analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa podovirus TC6: establishment of genus Pa11virus.

Phages have attracted a renewed interest as alternative to chemical antibiotics. Although the number of phages is 10-fold higher than that of bacteria, the number of genomically characterized phages is far less than that of bacteria. In this study, phage TC6, a novel lytic virus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was isolated and characterized. TC6 consists of an icosahedral head with a diameter of approximately 54 nm and a short tail with a length of about 17 nm, which are characteristics of the family Podoviridae. TC6 can lyse 86 out of 233 clinically isolated P. aeruginosa strains, thus showing application potentials for phage therapy. The linear double-stranded genomic DNA of TC6 consisted of 49796 base pairs and was predicted to contain 71 protein-coding genes. A total of 11 TC6 structural proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Comparative analysis revealed that the P. aeruginosa phages TC6, O4, PA11, and IME180 shared high similarity at DNA sequence and proteome levels, among which PA11 was the first phage discovered and published. Meanwhile, these phages contain 54 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore proposed that these four phages can be classified as Pa11virus, comprising a new phage genus of Podoviridae that infects Pseudomonas spp. The results of this work promoted our understanding of phage biology, classification, and diversity.

July 7, 2019  |  

Virulence and genomic feature of a virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 strain of serotype K2 harboring blaNDM-5 in China.

The objective of this study was to reveal the molecular mechanism involved in carbapenem resistance and virulence of a K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate 24835. The virulence of the strain was determined by in vitro and in vivo methods. The de novo whole-genome sequencing technology and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the genomic features associated with the carbapenem resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae 24835. Strain 24835 was highly resistant to carbapenems and belonged to ST14, exhibited hypermucoviscous and unique K2-aerobactin-kfu-rmpA positive phenotype. As the only carbapenemase gene in strain 24835, blaNDM-5 was located on a 46-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is a very close relation of pNDM-MGR194 from India. Genetic context of blaNDM-5 in strain 24835 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. The combination of multiple virulence genes may work together to confer the relative higher virulence in K. pneumoniae 24835. Significantly increased resistance to serum killing and mice mortality were found in the virulent New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing K. pneumoniae strain compared to the other NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Our study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of K. pneumoniae 24835, a strain displaying carbapenem resistance and relatively high level of virulence. These findings are concerning for the potential of NDM-like genes to disseminate among virulent K. pneumoniae isolates.

July 7, 2019  |  

Improved PKS gene expression with strong endogenous promoter resulted in geldanamycin yield increase.

The type I polyketide geldanamycin is a potent anti-tumor reagent. Its biosynthesis includes three steps: the biosynthesis of precursors, such as 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), the polyketide synthase (PKS) chain extension, and the post-PKS modifications. According to the genomic and transcriptomic analysis, the PKS chain extension was deduced to be the rate-limiting step for geldanamycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus XM201. In order to improve the expression of PKS genes, a strong endogenous promoter 5063p was obtained based on the transcriptomic analysis and XylE enzymatic assay. By replacing the native PKS promoter gdmA1p with 5063p, the expression of the PKS genes during geldanamycin fermentation was increased by 4-141-folds, and the geldanamycin yield was increased by 39%. Interestingly, AHBA feeding experiment showed that the supply of AHBA in turn become a new rate-limiting factor for geldanamycin production. Further combined overexpression of the 6-gene AHBA biosynthetic cassette and PKS genes increased the yield of geldanamycin by 88%, from 773?mg?L(-1) of the wild-type to 1450?mg?L(-1) in the derived strain. Our results suggested that improved expression of all PKS genes in a particular biosynthetic gene cluster is important for the yield increase of the corresponding polyketide natural product.© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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