July 7, 2019  |  

Complete sequences of organelle genomes from the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) and contrasting patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution across asterids.

Rhazya stricta is native to arid regions in South Asia and the Middle East and is used extensively in folk medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. In addition to generating genomic resources for this medicinally important plant, analyses of the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes and a nuclear transcriptome from Rhazya provide insights into inter-compartmental transfers between genomes and the patterns of evolution among eight asterid mitochondrial genomes.The 154,841 bp plastid genome is highly conserved with gene content and order identical to the ancestral organization of angiosperms. The 548,608 bp mitochondrial genome exhibits a number of phenomena including the presence of recombinogenic repeats that generate a multipartite organization, transferred DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes, and bidirectional DNA transfers between the mitochondrion and the nucleus. The mitochondrial genes sdh3 and rps14 have been transferred to the nucleus and have acquired targeting presequences. In the case of rps14, two copies are present in the nucleus; only one has a mitochondrial targeting presequence and may be functional. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and mitochondrial copies of rps14 across angiosperms suggests Rhazya has experienced a single transfer of this gene to the nucleus, followed by a duplication event. Furthermore, the phylogenetic distribution of gene losses and the high level of sequence divergence in targeting presequences suggest multiple, independent transfers of both sdh3 and rps14 across asterids. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of eight sequenced asterids indicates a complicated evolutionary history in this large angiosperm clade with considerable diversity in genome organization and size, repeat, gene and intron content, and amount of foreign DNA from the plastid and nuclear genomes.Organelle genomes of Rhazya stricta provide valuable information for improving the understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution among angiosperms. The genomic data have enabled a rigorous examination of the gene transfer events. Rhazya is unique among the eight sequenced asterids in the types of events that have shaped the evolution of its mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, the organelle genomes of R. stricta provide valuable genomic resources for utilizing this important medicinal plant in biotechnology applications.


July 7, 2019  |  

A precise chloroplast genome of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae) evaluated with Sanger, Illumina MiSeq, and PacBio RS II sequencing platforms: insight into the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.

BackgroundThe chloroplast genome is important for plant development and plant evolution. Nelumbo nucifera is one member of relict plants surviving from the late Cretaceous. Recently, a new sequencing platform PacBio RS II, known as `SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing¿, has been developed. Using the SMRT sequencing to investigate the chloroplast genome of N. nucifera will help to elucidate the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.ResultsThe sizes of the de novo assembled complete chloroplast genome of N. nucifera were 163,307 bp, 163,747 bp and 163,600 bp with average depths of coverage of 7×, 712× and 105× sequenced by Sanger, Illumina MiSeq and PacBio RS II, respectively. The precise chloroplast genome of N. nucifera was obtained from PacBio RS II data proofread by Illumina MiSeq reads, with a quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region (91,846 bp) and a small single copy region (19,626 bp) separated by two inverted repeat regions (26,064 bp). The genome contains 113 different genes, including four distinct rRNAs, 30 distinct tRNAs and 79 distinct peptide-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis of 133 taxa from 56 orders indicated that Nelumbo with an age of 177 million years is a sister clade to Platanus, which belongs to the basal eudicots. Basal eudicots began to emerge during the early Jurassic with estimated divergence times at 197 million years using MCMCTree. IR expansions/contractions within the basal eudicots seem to have occurred independently.ConclusionsBecause of long reads and lack of bias in coverage of AT-rich regions, PacBio RS II showed a great promise for highly accurate `finished¿ genomes, especially for a de novo assembly of genomes. N. nucifera is one member of basal eudicots, however, evolutionary analyses of IR structural variations of N. nucifera and other basal eudicots suggested that IR expansions/contractions occurred independently in these basal eudicots or were caused by independent insertions and deletions. The precise chloroplast genome of N. nucifera will present new information for structural variation of chloroplast genomes and provide new insight into the evolution of basal eudicots at the primary sequence and structural level.


July 7, 2019  |  

Strategies for complete plastid genome sequencing.

Plastid sequencing is an essential tool in the study of plant evolution. This high-copy organelle is one of the most technically accessible regions of the genome, and its sequence conservation makes it a valuable region for comparative genome evolution, phylogenetic analysis and population studies. Here, we discuss recent innovations and approaches for de novo plastid assembly that harness genomic tools. We focus on technical developments including low-cost sequence library preparation approaches for genome skimming, enrichment via hybrid baits and methylation-sensitive capture, sequence platforms with higher read outputs and longer read lengths, and automated tools for assembly. These developments allow for a much more streamlined assembly than via conventional short-range PCR. Although newer methods make complete plastid sequencing possible for any land plant or green alga, there are still challenges for producing finished plastomes particularly from herbarium material or from structurally divergent plastids such as those of parasitic plants.© 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of tung tree (Vernicia fordii): Organization and phylogenetic relationships with other angiosperms.

Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is an economically important tree widely cultivated for industrial oil production in China. To better understand the molecular basis of tung tree chloroplasts, we sequenced and characterized its genome using PacBio RS II sequencing platforms. The chloroplast genome was sequenced with 161,528?bp in length, composed with one pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,819?bp, which were separated by one small single copy (SSC; 18,758?bp) and one large single copy (LSC; 89,132?bp). The genome contains 114 genes, coding for 81 protein, four ribosomal RNAs and 29 transfer RNAs. An expansion with integration of an additional rps19 gene in the IR regions was identified. Compared to the chloroplast genome of Jatropha curcas, a species from the same family, the tung tree chloroplast genome is distinct with 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 82 indels. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that V. fordii is a sister species with J. curcas within the Eurosids I. The nucleotide sequence provides vital molecular information for understanding the biology of this important oil tree.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete plastid genomes of the genus Ammopiptanthus and identification of a novel 23-kb rearrangement

Ammopiptanthus is an endangered angiosperm genus with evergreen and broad leaves, grown in the semi-desert regions of eastern Central Asia. We decoded the complete plastid genomes of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (AM) and Ammopiptanthus nanus (AN), the only two species in the genus Ammopiptanthus. The total length of AM plastome is 153,935 bp, comprising a 83,889-bp long single-copy region (LSC), a 18,022-bp short single-copy region (SSC) and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,012 bp. The total length of AN plastome is 154,140 bp, including a LSC of 84,069 bp, a SSC of 17,971 bp and two IR regions of 26,000 bp, respectively. Each Ammopiptanthus plastome contains 116 unique functional genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA and 34 tRNA genes. Plastome sequence alignment with other Papilionoid legumes and an outgroup revealed a novel 23-kb inversion between the ndhJ and petN loci in Ammopiptanthus plastomes.


July 7, 2019  |  

In silico analysis of protein toxin and bacteriocins from Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 genome and available online databases.

Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 is a potential probiotic strain due to its ability to survive several conditions in human dental cavities. To ascertain its safety for human use, we therefore performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and characterization of the bacterial protein toxins produced by this strain. We report the complete genome of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 and its comparison to other Lactobacillus genomes. Additionally, we identify and analyze its protein toxins and antimicrobial proteins using reliable online database resources and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other bacterial genomes. Our investigation suggests that this strain is safe for human use and contains several bacteriocins that confer health benefits to the host. An in silico analysis of protein-protein interactions between the target bacteriocins and the microbial proteins gtfB and luxS of Streptococcus mutans was performed and is discussed here.


July 7, 2019  |  

Unlocking the biological potential of Euglena gracilis: evolution, cell biology and significance to parasitism

Photosynthetic euglenids are major components of aquatic ecosystems and relatives of trypanosomes. Euglena gracilis has considerable biotechnological potential and great adaptability, but exploitation remains hampered by the absence of a comprehensive gene catalogue. We address this by genome, RNA and protein sequencing: the E. gracilis genome is >2Gb, with 36,526 predicted proteins. Large lineage-specific paralog families are present, with evidence for flexibility in environmental monitoring, divergent mechanisms for metabolic control, and novel solutions for adaptation to extreme environments. Contributions from photosynthetic eukaryotes to the nuclear genome, consistent with the shopping bag model are found, together with transitions between kinetoplastid and canonical systems. Control of protein expression is almost exclusively post-transcriptional. These data are a major advance in understanding the nuclear genomes of euglenids and provide a platform for investigating the contributions of E. gracilis and its relatives to the biosphere.


July 7, 2019  |  

The plastid genome in Cladophorales green algae is encoded by hairpin chromosomes.

Virtually all plastid (chloroplast) genomes are circular double-stranded DNA molecules, typically between 100 and 200 kb in size and encoding circa 80-250 genes. Exceptions to this universal plastid genome architecture are very few and include the dinoflagellates, where genes are located on DNA minicircles. Here we report on the highly deviant chloroplast genome of Cladophorales green algae, which is entirely fragmented into hairpin chromosomes. Short- and long-read high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA demonstrated that the chloroplast genes of Boodlea composita are encoded on 1- to 7-kb DNA contigs with an exceptionally high GC content, each containing a long inverted repeat with one or two protein-coding genes and conserved non-coding regions putatively involved in replication and/or expression. We propose that these contigs correspond to linear single-stranded DNA molecules that fold onto themselves to form hairpin chromosomes. The Boodlea chloroplast genes are highly divergent from their corresponding orthologs, and display an alternative genetic code. The origin of this highly deviant chloroplast genome most likely occurred before the emergence of the Cladophorales, and coincided with an elevated transfer of chloroplast genes to the nucleus. A chloroplast genome that is composed only of linear DNA molecules is unprecedented among eukaryotes, and highlights unexpected variation in plastid genome architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Coevolution between Nuclear-encoded DNA replication, recombination, and repair genes and plastid genome complexity.

Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome and plasmid sequences for Rhodococcus fascians D188 and draft sequences for Rhodococcus isolates PBTS 1 and PBTS 2.

Rhodococcus fascians, a phytopathogen that alters plant development, inflicts significant losses in plant production around the world. We report here the complete genome sequence of R. fascians D188, a well-characterized model isolate, and Rhodococcus species PBTS (pistachio bushy top syndrome) 1 and 2, which were shown to be responsible for a disease outbreak in pistachios. Copyright © 2016 Stamler et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Swertia mussotii using the PacBio RS II platform.

Swertia mussotii is an important medicinal plant that has great economic and medicinal value and is found on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of S. mussotii is 153,431 bp in size, with a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,761 bp each that separate an large single-copy (LSC) region of 83,567 bp and an a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,342 bp. The S. mussotii cp genome encodes 84 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The identity, number, and GC content of S. mussotii cp genes were similar to those in the genomes of other Gentianales species. Via analysis of the repeat structure, 11 forward repeats, eight palindromic repeats, and one reverse repeat were detected in the S. mussotii cp genome. There are 45 SSRs in the S. mussotii cp genome, the majority of which are mononucleotides found in all other Gentianales species. An entire cp genome comparison study of S. mussotii and two other species in Gentianaceae was conducted. The complete cp genome sequence provides intragenic information for the cp genetic engineering of this medicinal plant.


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