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January 1, 2016

Long-term changes of bacterial and viral compositions in the intestine of a recovered Clostridium difficile patient after fecal microbiota transplantation

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs). However, long-term effects on the patients’ gut microbiota and the role of viruses remain to be elucidated. Here, we characterized bacterial and viral microbiota in the feces of a cured RCDI patient at various time points until 4.5 yr post-FMT compared with the stool donor. Feces were subjected to DNA sequencing to characterize bacteria and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses including phages. The patient's microbial communities varied over time and showed little overall similarity to the donor until 7 mo post-FMT, indicating ongoing gut microbiota adaption in…

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December 20, 2015

A transferable plasticity region in Campylobacter coli allows isolates of an otherwise non-glycolytic food-borne pathogen to catabolize glucose.

Thermophilic Campylobacter species colonize the intestine of agricultural and domestic animals commensally but cause severe gastroenteritis in humans. In contrast to other enteropathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter has been considered to be non-glycolytic, a metabolic property originally used for their taxonomic classification. Contrary to this dogma, we demonstrate that several Campylobacter coli strains are able to utilize glucose as a growth substrate. Isotopologue profiling experiments with (13) C-labeled glucose suggested that these strains catabolize glucose via the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathways and use glucose efficiently for de novo synthesis of amino acids and cell surface carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing of…

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December 18, 2015

The complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8.

Bacillus thuringiensis, a typical aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, is an important microbial insecticide widely used in the control of agricultural pests. B. thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8 with high insecticidal activity against Diptera and Lepidoptera insects has three insecticidal crystal protein genes, such as cry4Cb2, cry30Ea2, and cry56Aa1. In this study, the complete genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YWC2-8 was analyzed, which contains one circular gapless chromosome and six circular plasmids. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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December 10, 2015

Complete genome sequencing of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila ZAC14D2_NAIMI4_2, a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from sediments of a polluted river in Mexico, uncovers new antibiotic resistance genes and a novel class-II lasso peptide biosynthesis gene cluster.

Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain, generated with PacBio RS II single-molecule real-time technology, consisting of a single circular chromosome of 4.13 Mb. We annotated mobile genetic elements and natural product biosynthesis clusters, including a novel class-II lasso peptide with a 7-residue macrolactam ring. Copyright © 2015 Vinuesa and Ochoa-Sánchez.

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December 1, 2015

SMRT Sequencing for parallel analysis of multiple targets and accurate SNP phasing.

Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing generates much longer reads than other widely used next-generation (next-gen) sequencing methods, but its application to whole genome/exome analysis has been limited. Here, we describe the use of SMRT sequencing coupled with barcoding to simultaneously analyze one or a small number of genomic targets derived from multiple sources. In the budding yeast system, SMRT sequencing was used to analyze strand-exchange intermediates generated during mitotic recombination and to analyze genetic changes in a forward mutation assay. The general barcoding-SMRT approach was then extended to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma primary tumors and cell lines, where detected changes agreed…

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December 1, 2015

Transcriptome-wide investigation of circular RNAs in rice.

Various stable circular RNAs (circRNAs) are newly identified to be the abundance of noncoding RNAs in Archaea, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans through high-throughput deep sequencing coupled with analysis of massive transcriptional data. CircRNAs play important roles in miRNA function and transcriptional controlling by acting as competing endogenous RNAs or positive regulators on their parent coding genes. However, little is known regarding circRNAs in plants. Here, we report 2354 rice circRNAs that were identified through deep sequencing and computational analysis of ssRNA-seq data. Among them, 1356 are exonic circRNAs. Some circRNAs exhibit tissue-specific expression. Rice circRNAs have a considerable number…

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December 1, 2015

The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ? duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM…

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December 1, 2015

Clonal dissemination of Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 in the upper midwestern United States.

Carbapenemase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CP-CRE, are an emerging threat to human and animal health, because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae harboring blaKPC-3 recently was reported in the upper midwestern United States and implicated in a hospital outbreak in Fargo, North Dakota (L. M. Kiedrowski, D. M. Guerrero, F. Perez, R. A. Viau, L. J. Rojas, M. F. Mojica, S. D. Rudin, A. M. Hujer, S. H. Marshall, and R. A. Bonomo, Emerg Infect Dis 20:1583-1585, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344). In early 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health began collecting and screening…

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December 1, 2015

Evaluation of bacterial contamination in raw milk, ultra-high temperature milk and infant formula using single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

The Pacific Biosciences (Menlo Park, CA) single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) was reported to have some advantages in analyzing the bacterial profile of environmental samples. In this study, the presence of bacterial contaminants in raw milk, UHT milk, and infant formula was determined by SMRT sequencing of the full length 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial profiles obtained at different taxonomic levels revealed clear differences in bacterial community structure across the 16 analyzed dairy samples. No indicative pathogenic bacteria were found in any of these tested samples. However, some of the detected bacterial species (e.g., Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and…

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November 26, 2015

Single-molecule sequencing of the desiccation-tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum.

Plant genomes, and eukaryotic genomes in general, are typically repetitive, polyploid and heterozygous, which complicates genome assembly. The short read lengths of early Sanger and current next-generation sequencing platforms hinder assembly through complex repeat regions, and many draft and reference genomes are fragmented, lacking skewed GC and repetitive intergenic sequences, which are gaining importance due to projects like the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the desiccation-tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum. Using only single-molecule real-time sequencing, which generates long (>16?kilobases) reads with random errors, we assembled 99% (244?megabases) of the Oropetium genome into…

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November 20, 2015

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, a natural rubber degrading actinomycete isolated from Penang, Malaysia.

Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which naturally degrades rubber, was isolated from a rubber plantation. Whole genome sequencing and assembly resulted in 2 contigs with total genome size of 8.248 Mb. Two latex clearing protein (lcp) genes which are responsible for rubber degrading activities were identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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November 11, 2015

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus FORC_005, a food-borne pathogen from the soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg.

Due to abundant contamination in various foods, the pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus has been widely studied in physiological and molecular level. B. cereus FORC_005 was isolated from a Korean side dish, soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg in South Korea. While 21 complete genome sequences of B. cereus has been announced to date, this strain was completely sequenced, analyzed, and compared with other complete genome sequences of B. cereus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of a strain isolated in South Korea. The genomic DNA containing a circular chromosome consists of 5,349,617-bp with a GC content of 35.29 %. It was…

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