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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Biosynthesis of 1a-hydroxycorticosterone in the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata: evidence to suggest a novel steroidogenic route.

The present study explores the ability of intracellular bacteria within the renal-inter-renal tissue of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata to metabolize steroids and contribute to the synthesis of the novel elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OH-B). Despite the rarity of C1 hydroxylation noted in the original identification of 1a-OH-B, literature provides evidence for steroid C1 hydroxylation by micro-organisms. Eight ureolytic bacterial isolates were identified in the renal-inter-renal tissue of L. ocellata, the latter being the site of 1a-OH-B synthesis. From incubations of bacterial isolates with known amounts of potential 1a-OH-B precursors, one isolate UM008 of the genus Rhodococcus was seen to metabolize…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Coping with living in the soil: the genome of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida.

Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to life in the soil, we studied its genome in the context of its parthenogenetic lifestyle.We applied Pacific Bioscience sequencing and assembly to generate a reference genome for F. candida of 221.7 Mbp, comprising only 162 scaffolds. The complete genome of its endosymbiont Wolbachia, was also assembled and turned out to be the largest strain identified so far. Substantial gene family expansions…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

De novo whole-genome sequencing of the wood rot fungus Polyporus brumalis, which exhibits potential terpenoid metabolism.

Polyporus brumalis is able to synthesize several sesquiterpenes during fungal growth. Using a single-molecule real-time sequencing platform, we present the 53-Mb draft genome of P. brumalis, which contains 6,231 protein-coding genes. Gene annotation and isolation support genetic information, which can increase the understanding of sesquiterpene metabolism in P. brumalis. Copyright © 2017 Lee et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Long-read sequencing offers path to more accurate drug metabolism profiles

In the complex drug discovery process, one of the looming questions for any new compound is how it will be metabolised in a human bodyWhi|e there are several methods for evaluating this, one of the most common involves CYP2D6,the enzyme encoded by the cytochrome P450—2D6 gene.This enzyme is involved in metabolising a quarter of all commonly used medications, making it an important target for ADME and pharmacogenomics studies. It is known to activate some drugs and to play a role in the deactivation or excretion of others.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First Azospirillum genome from aquatic environments: Whole-genome sequence of Azospirillum thiophilum BV-S(T), a novel diazotroph harboring a capacity of sulfur-chemolithotrophy from a sulfide spring.

Azospirillum thiophilum BV-S(T), isolated from a sulfide spring, is a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium harboring sulfur-lithotrophy. In order to identify genetic characteristics with habitat- and metabolic features contrasting to those from terrestrial Azospirillum species, we present here the genome sequence of a novel species A. thiophilum BV-S(T), with a significance of first genome report in the aquatic Azospirillum species. The genome of strain BV-S(T) is comprised of 7.6Mb chromosome with a GC content of 68.2%. This information will contribute to expand understandings of sulfur-oxidizer microbes that preserve inherencies as a diazotroph, and further it will provide insights into genome plasticity of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment.

Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switch from aerobic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Metabolomics-guided analysis of isocoumarin production by Streptomyces species MBT76 and biotransformation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

Actinomycetes produce the majority of the antibiotics currently in clinical use. The efficiency of antibiotic production is affected by multiple factors such as nutrients, pH, temperature and growth phase. Finding the optimal harvesting time is crucial for successful isolation of the desired bioactive metabolites from actinomycetes, but for this conventional chemical analysis has limitations due to the metabolic complexity. This study explores the utility of NMR-based metabolomics for (1) optimizing fermentation time for the production of known and/or unknown bioactive compounds produced by actinomycetes; (2) elucidating the biosynthetic pathway for microbial natural products; and (3) facilitating the biotransformation of nature-abundant…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and analysis of a stress-tolerant, wild-derived strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in biofuels research

The genome sequences of more than 100 strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been published. Unfortunately, most of these genome assemblies contain dozens to hundreds of gaps at repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, tRNAs, and subtelomeric regions, which is where novel genes generally reside. Relatively few strains have been chosen for genome sequencing based on their biofuel production potential, leaving an additional knowledge gap. Here, we describe the nearly complete genome sequence of GLBRCY22-3 (Y22-3), a strain of S. cerevisiae derived from the stress-tolerant wild strain NRRL YB-210 and subsequently engineered for xylose metabolism. After benchmarking several genome assembly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Co-utilization of glucose and xylose by evolved Thermus thermophilus LC113 strain elucidated by (13)C metabolic flux analysis and whole genome sequencing.

We evolved Thermus thermophilus to efficiently co-utilize glucose and xylose, the two most abundant sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, at high temperatures without carbon catabolite repression. To generate the strain, T. thermophilus HB8 was first evolved on glucose to improve its growth characteristics, followed by evolution on xylose. The resulting strain, T. thermophilus LC113, was characterized in growth studies, by whole genome sequencing, and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) with [1,6-(13)C]glucose, [5-(13)C]xylose, and [1,6-(13)C]glucose+[5-(13)C]xylose as isotopic tracers. Compared to the starting strain, the evolved strain had an increased growth rate (~2-fold), increased biomass yield, increased tolerance to high temperatures up to 90°C,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Carbon flux and carbohydrate gene families in pineapple

The recently sequenced pineapple genome was used to identify and analyze some of the key gene families involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis, breakdown and modification. Gene products were grouped into glycosyltransferases (GT), glycoside hydrolases (GH), carbohydrate esterases (CE), and polysaccharide lyases (PL) based upon predicted catalytic activity. Non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) and enzymes involved in lignification were also identified. The pineapple genes were compared with those from two and five monocot and eudicots species, respectively. The complement of pineapple sugar and cell wall metabolism genes is similar to that found in rice and sorghum, though the numbers of GTs and GHs…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Marivivens sp. JLT3646, a potential aromatic compound degrader

Marivivens sp. JLT3646 (CGMCC 1.15778), belonging to the phylum Alphaproteobacteria, was isolated from seawater, Kueishan Islet, offshore northeast of Taiwan. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Marivivens sp. JLT3646, which contains a circular 2,978,145 bp chromosome with 56.2% G + C content, and one circular plasmid which is 169,066 bp in length. The genome data suggested that Marivivens sp. JLT3646 has the potential to degrade aromatic monomers, which might provide insight into biotechnological applications and facilitate the investigation of environmental bioremediation.

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