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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the Clostridium difficile laboratory strain 630¿ erm reveals differences from strain 630, including translocation of the mobile element CTn 5.

Background Clostridium difficile strain 630¿erm is a spontaneous erythromycin sensitive derivative of the reference strain 630 obtained by serial passaging in antibiotic-free media. It is widely used as a defined and tractable C. difficile strain. Though largely similar to the ancestral strain, it demonstrates phenotypic differences that might be the result of underlying genetic changes. Here, we performed a de novo assembly based on single-molecule real-time sequencing and an analysis of major methylation patterns.ResultsIn addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms and various indels, we found that the mobile element CTn5 is present in the gene encoding the methyltransferase rumA rather than…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of BS49 and draft genome sequence of BS34A, Bacillus subtilis strains carrying Tn916.

Bacillus subtilis strains BS49 and BS34A, both derived from a common ancestor, carry one or more copies of Tn916, an extremely common mobile genetic element capable of transfer to and from a broad range of microorganisms. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of BS49 and the draft genome sequence of BS34A, which have repeatedly been used as donors to transfer Tn916, Tn916 derivatives or oriTTn916-containing plasmids to clinically important pathogens. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 including megaplasmid pTTS12.

Pseudomonas putida S12 is a solvent-tolerant gamma-proteobacterium with an extensive track record for production of industrially relevant chemicals. Here we report the annotated complete genome sequence of this organism, including the megaplasmid pTTS12 which encodes many of the unique features of the S12 strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes.

Structural variants are implicated in numerous diseases and make up the majority of varying nucleotides among human genomes. Here we describe an integrated set of eight structural variant classes comprising both balanced and unbalanced variants, which we constructed using short-read DNA sequencing data and statistically phased onto haplotype blocks in 26 human populations. Analysing this set, we identify numerous gene-intersecting structural variants exhibiting population stratification and describe naturally occurring homozygous gene knockouts that suggest the dispensability of a variety of human genes. We demonstrate that structural variants are enriched on haplotypes identified by genome-wide association studies and exhibit enrichment for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Metabolomics-driven discovery of a prenylated isatin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces species MBT28.

Actinomycetes are a major source of antimicrobials, anticancer compounds, and other medically important products, and their genomes harbor extensive biosynthetic potential. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known molecules. Here we report the identification of a previously unidentified isatin-type antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. MBT28, following a strategy based on NMR-based metabolomics combined with the introduction of streptomycin resistance in the producer strain. NMR-guided isolation by tracking the target proton signal resulted in the characterization of 7-prenylisatin (1) with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Detecting authorized and unauthorized genetically modified organisms containing vip3A by real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing.

The growing number of biotech crops with novel genetic elements increasingly complicates the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples using conventional screening methods. Unauthorized GMOs (UGMOs) in food and feed are currently identified through combining GMO element screening with sequencing the DNA flanking these elements. In this study, a specific and sensitive qPCR assay was developed for vip3A element detection based on the vip3Aa20 coding sequences of the recently marketed MIR162 maize and COT102 cotton. Furthermore, SiteFinding-PCR in combination with Sanger, Illumina or Pacific BioSciences (PacBio) sequencing was performed targeting the flanking DNA of the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genomic landscape of the verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV.

Aerobic methanotrophs can grow in hostile volcanic environments and use methane as their sole source of energy. The discovery of three verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum strains has revealed diverse metabolic pathways used by these methanotrophs, including mechanisms through which methane is oxidized. The basis of a complete understanding of these processes and of how these bacteria evolved and are able to thrive in such extreme environments partially resides in the complete characterization of their genome and its architecture.In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, obtained using Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The genome assembles…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of the filamentous actinomycete Kitasatospora viridifaciens.

The vast majority of antibiotics are produced by filamentous soil bacteria called actinomycetes. We report here the genome sequence of the tetracycline producer “Streptomyces viridifaciens” DSM 40239. Given that this species has the hallmark signatures characteristic of the Kitasatospora genus, we previously proposed to rename this organism Kitasatospora viridifaciens. Copyright © 2017 Ramijan et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Prevalence of colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) containing Enterobacteriaceae in feces of patients attending a tertiary care hospital and detection of a mcr-1 containing, colistin susceptible E. coli.

The emergence of the plasmid-mediated mcr colistin resistance gene in the community poses a potential threat for treatment of patients, especially when hospitalized. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of all currently known mcr mediated colistin resistance gene in fecal samples of patients attending a tertiary care hospital. From November 2014 until July 2015, fecal samples of patients attending the Leiden University Medical Center were collected and screened for presence of mcr using real-time PCR. Two of 576 patients were positive for mcr-1, resulting in a prevalence of 0.35%, whereas no mcr-2 was found. One of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Coping with living in the soil: the genome of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida.

Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to life in the soil, we studied its genome in the context of its parthenogenetic lifestyle.We applied Pacific Bioscience sequencing and assembly to generate a reference genome for F. candida of 221.7 Mbp, comprising only 162 scaffolds. The complete genome of its endosymbiont Wolbachia, was also assembled and turned out to be the largest strain identified so far. Substantial gene family expansions…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Long-read sequencing offers path to more accurate drug metabolism profiles

In the complex drug discovery process, one of the looming questions for any new compound is how it will be metabolised in a human bodyWhi|e there are several methods for evaluating this, one of the most common involves CYP2D6,the enzyme encoded by the cytochrome P450—2D6 gene.This enzyme is involved in metabolising a quarter of all commonly used medications, making it an important target for ADME and pharmacogenomics studies. It is known to activate some drugs and to play a role in the deactivation or excretion of others.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Metabolomics-guided analysis of isocoumarin production by Streptomyces species MBT76 and biotransformation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

Actinomycetes produce the majority of the antibiotics currently in clinical use. The efficiency of antibiotic production is affected by multiple factors such as nutrients, pH, temperature and growth phase. Finding the optimal harvesting time is crucial for successful isolation of the desired bioactive metabolites from actinomycetes, but for this conventional chemical analysis has limitations due to the metabolic complexity. This study explores the utility of NMR-based metabolomics for (1) optimizing fermentation time for the production of known and/or unknown bioactive compounds produced by actinomycetes; (2) elucidating the biosynthetic pathway for microbial natural products; and (3) facilitating the biotransformation of nature-abundant…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Dynamics of mutations during development of resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa against five antibiotics.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes considerable morbidity and mortality, specifically in the intensive care. Antibiotic resistant variants of this organism are more difficult to treat and cause substantial extra costs compared to susceptible strains. In the laboratory, P. aeruginosa rapidly developed resistance against five medically relevant antibiotics upon exposure to step-wise increasing concentrations. At several time points during the acquisition of resistance samples were taken for whole genome sequencing. The increase of MIC for ciprofloxacin was linked to specific mutations in gyrA, parC and gyrB, appearing sequentially. In the case of tobramycin, mutations were induced in fusA,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Association between progranulin and Gaucher disease.

Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene which result in reduced enzymatic activity of ß-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This study identified the progranulin (PGRN) gene (GRN) as another gene associated with GD.Serum levels of PGRN were measured from 115 GD patients and 99 healthy controls, whole GRN gene from 40 GD patients was sequenced, and the genotyping of 4 SNPs identified in GD patients was performed in 161 GD and 142 healthy control samples. Development of GD in PGRN-deficient mice was characterized, and the therapeutic effect of rPGRN on GD analyzed.Serum PGRN levels were significantly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A full-body transcriptome and proteome resource for the European common carp.

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the oldest, most domesticated and one of the most cultured fish species for food consumption. Besides its economic importance, the common carp is also highly suitable for comparative physiological and disease studies in combination with the animal model zebrafish (Danio rerio). They are genetically closely related but offer complementary benefits for fundamental research, with the large body mass of common carp presenting possibilities for obtaining sufficient cell material for advanced transcriptome and proteome studies.Here we have used 19 different tissues from an F1 hybrid strain of the common carp to perform transcriptome analyses using…

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