April 21, 2020  |  

Whole Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated From Kimchi and Determination of Probiotic Properties to Treat Mucosal Infections by Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginalis.

Three Lactobacillus plantarum strains ATG-K2, ATG-K6, and ATG-K8 were isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food, and their probiotic potentials were examined. All three strains were free of antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, and biogenic amine production and therefore assumed to be safe, as supported by whole genome analyses. These strains demonstrated several basic probiotic functions including a wide range of antibacterial activity, bile salt hydrolase activity, hydrogen peroxide production, and heat resistance at 70°C for 60 s. Further studies of antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginalis revealed growth inhibitory effects from culture supernatants, coaggregation effects, and killing effects of the three probiotic strains, with better efficacy toward C. albicans. In vitro treatment of bacterial lysates of the probiotic strains to the RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line resulted in innate immunity enhancement via IL-6 and TNF-a production without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and anti-inflammatory effects via significantly increased production of IL-10 when co-treated with LPS. However, the degree of probiotic effect was different for each strain as the highest TNF-a and the lowest IL-10 production by the RAW264.7 cell were observed in the K8 lysate treated group compared to the K2 and K6 lysate treated groups, which may be related to genomic differences such as chromosome size (K2: 3,034,884 bp, K6: 3,205,672 bp, K8: 3,221,272 bp), plasmid numbers (K2: 3, K6 and K8: 1), or total gene numbers (K2: 3,114, K6: 3,178, K8: 3,186). Although more correlative inspections to connect genomic information and biological functions are needed, genomic analyses of the three strains revealed distinct genomic compositions of each strain. Also, this finding suggests genome level analysis may be required to accurately identify microorganisms. Nevertheless, L. plantarum ATG-K2, ATG-K6, and ATG-K8 demonstrated their potential as probiotics for mucosal health improvement in both microbial and immunological contexts.

April 21, 2020  |  

Proteomic Analysis of Lactobacillus nagelii in the Presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated From Water Kefir and Comparison With Lactobacillus hordei.

Water kefir is a slightly alcoholic and traditionally fermented beverage, which is prepared from sucrose, water, kefir grains, and dried or fresh fruits (e.g., figs). Lactobacillus (L.) nagelii, L. hordei, and Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae are predominant and stable lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, respectively, isolated from water kefir consortia. The growth of L. nagelii and L. hordei are improved in the presence of S. cerevisiae. In this work we demonstrate that quantitative comparative proteomics enables the investigation of interactions between LAB and yeast to predict real-time metabolic exchange in water kefir. It revealed 73 differentially expressed (DE) in L. nagelii TMW 1.1827 in the presence of S. cerevisiae. The presence of the yeast induced changes in the changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of L. nagelii and affected reactions involved in NAD+/NADH homeostasis. Furthermore, the DE enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis or catabolism predict that S. cerevisiae releases glutamine, histidine, methionine, and arginine, which are subsequently used by L. nagelii to ensure its survival in the water kefir consortium. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, L. nagelii profits from riboflavin, most likely secreted by the yeast. The reaction of L. nagelii to the presence of S. cerevisiae differs from that one of the previously studied L. hordei, which displays 233 differentially expressed proteins, changes in citrate metabolism and an antidromic strategy for NAD+/NADH homeostasis. So far, aggregation promotion factors, i.e., formation of a specific glucan and bifunctional enzymes were only detected in L. hordei.

September 22, 2019  |  

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II’s sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing, complex population analysis, RNA sequencing, and epigenetics characterization. With PacBio RS II, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of many species, from viruses to humans. Herein, we summarize and review some of our key genome sequencing projects, including full-length viral sequencing, complete bacterial genome and almost-complete plant genome assemblies, and long amplicon sequencing of a disease-associated gene region. We believe that PacBio RS II is not only an effective tool for use in the basic biological sciences but also in the medical/clinical setting.

September 22, 2019  |  

Transcriptome profiling using single-molecule direct RNA sequencing approach for in-depth understanding of genes in secondary metabolism pathways of Camellia sinensis.

Characteristic secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, theanine and caffeine, are important components of Camellia sinensis, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Previous studies on the biosynthesis of these major secondary metabolites using next-generation sequencing technologies limited the accurately prediction of full-length (FL) splice isoforms. Herein, we applied single-molecule sequencing to pooled tea plant tissues, to provide a more complete transcriptome of C. sinensis. Moreover, we identified 94 FL transcripts and four alternative splicing events for enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, theanine and caffeine. According to the comparison between long-read isoforms and assemble transcripts, we improved the quality and accuracy of genes sequenced by short-read next-generation sequencing technology. The resulting FL transcripts, together with the improved assembled transcripts and identified alternative splicing events, enhance our understanding of genes involved in the biosynthesis of characteristic secondary metabolites in C. sinensis.

September 22, 2019  |  

Using PacBio long-read high-throughput microbial gene amplicon sequencing to evaluate infant formula safety.

Infant formula (IF) requires a strict microbiological standard because of the high vulnerability of infants to foodborne diseases. The current study used the PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform to generate full-length 16S rRNA-based bacterial microbiota profiles of thirty Chinese domestic and imported IF samples. A total of 600 species were identified, dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus piscium. Distinctive bacterial profiles were observed between the two sample groups, as confirmed with both principal coordinate analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. Moreover, the product whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), representing the degree of preheating, negatively correlated with the relative abundances of the Bacillus genus. Our study has demonstrated the application of the PacBio SMRT sequencing platform in assessing the bacterial contamination of IF products, which is of interest to the dairy industry for effective monitoring of microbial quality and safety during production.

September 22, 2019  |  

Identification of microbial profile of Koji using Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing technology.

Koji is a kind of Japanese traditional fermented starter that has been used for centuries. Many fermented foods are made from koji, such as sake, miso, and soy sauce. This study used the single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) to investigate the bacterial and fungal microbiota of 3 Japanese koji samples. After SMRT analysis, a total of 39121 high-quality sequences were generated, including 14354 bacterial and 24767 fungal sequence reads. The high-quality gene sequences were assigned to 5 bacterial and 2 fungal plyla, dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively. At the genus level, Ochrobactrum and Wickerhamomyces were the most abundant bacterial and fungal genera, respectively. The predominant bacterial and fungal species were Ochrobactrum lupini and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, respectively. Our study profiled the microbiota composition of 3 Japanese koji samples to the species level precision. The results may be useful for further development of traditional fermented products, especially optimization of koji preparation. Meanwhile, this study has demonstrated that SMRT is a robust tool for analyzing the microbial composition in food samples.© 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

September 22, 2019  |  

Effect of Chinese rice wine sludge on the production of Chinese steamed buns

Chinese rice wine sludge (CRWS), analogous to beer yeast sludge, is the filter cake remaining after squeezing the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine. CRWS contains high levels of protein (44.74%), nonstructural carbohydrates (37.33%), crude fiber (13.5%), and essential amino acids, which could enhance the trophic value of Chinese steamed buns. In our research, the microbiota of CRWS (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus sp.) was analyzed at the species level by single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology. Interestingly, the microbiota of CRWS was similar to that of the starter dough typically used to prepare Chinese steamed buns. Incorporation of CRWS significantly influenced the pasting properties and farinograph characteristics of the dough, which control the texture of the Chinese steamed buns, and supplementation with 5~30% CRWS caused the properties of the resulting buns to be more similar to those of northern-style steamed buns. CRWS addition also significantly enhanced the content of aroma compounds in the Chinese steamed buns.

September 22, 2019  |  

Investigating bacterial population structure and dynamics in traditional koumiss from Inner Mongolia using single molecule real-time sequencing.

Koumiss is considered as a complete dairy product high in nutrients and with medicinal properties. The bacterial communities involved in production of koumiss play a crucial role in the fermentation cycle. To reveal bacterial biodiversity in koumiss and the dynamics of succession in bacterial populations during fermentation, 22 samples were collected from 5 sampling sites and the full length of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes sequenced using single molecule real-time sequencing technology. One hundred forty-eight species were identified from 82 bacterial genera and 8 phyla. These results suggested that the structural difference in the bacterial community could be attributed to geographical location. The most significant difference in bacterial composition occurred in samples from group D compared with other groups. The sampling location of group D was distant from the city and maintained the primitive local nomadic life. The dynamics of succession in bacterial communities showed that Lactobacillus helveticus increased in abundance from 0 to 9h and reached its peak at 9h and then decreased. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus casseliflavus increased gradually throughout the fermentation process, and reached a maximum after 24h. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

September 22, 2019  |  

Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses

In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy.

September 22, 2019  |  

Characterization of ß-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain’s growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively, were analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both are identical ß-(1?3)-glucans, which are ramified with ß-glucose residues at position O2. Therefore, we assume that this EPS is mainly produced as CPS and partially released into the surrounding medium, causing viscosity of e.g. beer. CPS formation was confirmed via an agglutination test. A plasmid-located glycosyltransferase-2 was found as responsible for excess ß-glucan formation, chromosomal glucanases were proposed for its degradation. The glycosyltransferase-2 gene could also be specifically identified in beer-spoiling, slime-producing Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains, suggesting it as promising marker gene for the early detection of ß-glucan-producing Lactobacilli in breweries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence and analysis of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain N85 used in Chinese rice wine production.

Chinese rice wine is a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China, while its brewing processes have rarely been explored. We herein report the first gapless, near-finished genome sequence of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae N85 for Chinese rice wine production. Several assembly methods were used to integrate Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Illumina sequencing data to achieve high-quality genome sequencing of the strain. The genome encodes more than 6,000 predicted proteins, and 238 long non-coding RNAs, which are validated by RNA-sequencing data. Moreover, our annotation predicts 171 novel genes that are not present in the reference S288c genome. We also identified 65,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms and small indels, many of which are located within genic regions. Dozens of larger copy-number variations and translocations were detected, mainly enriched in the subtelomeres, suggesting these regions may be related to genomic evolution. This study will serve as a milestone in studying of Chinese rice wine and related beverages in China and in other countries. It will help to develop more scientific and modern fermentation processes of Chinese rice wine, and explore metabolism pathways of desired and harmful components in Chinese rice wine to improve its taste and nutritional value.© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

September 22, 2019  |  

Update on Tetracycline Susceptibility of Pediococcus acidilactici Based on Strains Isolated from Swiss Cheese and Whey.

Bacterial strains used as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods may act as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. To avoid the introduction of such genes into the food chain, the presence of acquired AbR in bacterial strains added to food must be tested. Standard protocols and microbiological cut-off values have been defined to provide practitioners with a basis for evaluating whether their bacterial isolates harbor an acquired resistance to a given antibiotic. Here, we tested the AbR of 24 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici by using the standard protocol and microbiological cut-off values recommended by the European Food Safety Authority. Phenotypic data were complemented by searching for known AbR genes using an in silico analysis of whole genomes. The majority (54.2%) of the strains were able to grow at a tetracycline concentration above the defined cut-off, even though only one strain carried a known tetracycline resistance gene, tetM. The same strain also carried the AbR gene of an erythromycin resistance methylase, ermA, and displayed resistance toward clindamycin and erythromycin. Our results bolster the scarce data on the sensitivity of P. acidilactici to tetracycline and suggest that the microbiological cut-off recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for this antibiotic should be amended.

July 19, 2019  |  

Identification of restriction-modification systems of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 by SMRT Sequencing and associated methylome analysis.

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is a component of a commercialized fermented dairy product for which beneficial effects on health has been studied by clinical and preclinical trials. To date little is known about the molecular mechanisms that could explain the beneficial effects that bifidobacteria impart to the host. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified as key obstacles in the genetic accessibility of bifidobacteria, and circumventing these is a prerequisite to attaining a fundamental understanding of bifidobacterial attributes, including the genes that are responsible for health-promoting properties of this clinically and industrially important group of bacteria. The complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is predicted to harbour the genetic determinants for two type II R-M systems, designated BanLI and BanLII. In order to investigate the functionality and specificity of these two putative R-M systems in B. animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494, we employed PacBio SMRT sequencing with associated methylome analysis. In addition, the contribution of the identified R-M systems to the genetic accessibility of this strain was assessed.

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