July 19, 2019  |  

Single-molecule sequencing to track plasmid diversity of hospital-associated carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

Public health officials have raised concerns that plasmid transfer between Enterobacteriaceae species may spread resistance to carbapenems, an antibiotic class of last resort, thereby rendering common health care-associated infections nearly impossible to treat. To determine the diversity of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids and assess their mobility among bacterial species, we performed comprehensive surveillance and genomic sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center patient population and hospital environment. We isolated a repertoire of carbapenemase-encoding Enterobacteriaceae, including multiple strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Pantoea species. Long-read genome sequencing with full end-to-end assembly revealed that these organisms carry the carbapenem resistance genes on a wide array of plasmids. K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolated simultaneously from a single patient harbored two different carbapenemase-encoding plasmids, indicating that plasmid transfer between organisms was unlikely within this patient. We did, however, find evidence of horizontal transfer of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids between K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and C. freundii in the hospital environment. Our data, including full plasmid identification, challenge assumptions about horizontal gene transfer events within patients and identify possible connections between patients and the hospital environment. In addition, we identified a new carbapenemase-encoding plasmid of potentially high clinical impact carried by K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. cloacae, and Pantoea species, in unrelated patients and in the hospital environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.


July 19, 2019  |  

Comprehensive genome analysis of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp.: new insights into phylogeny, population structure and resistance mechanisms.

Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed blaKPC-2, 40 had blaKPC-3, 2 had blaKPC-4, and 2 had blaNDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the blaKPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this genus.Enterobacter spp., especially carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp., have emerged as a clinically significant cause of nosocomial infections. However, only limited information is available on the distribution of carbapenem resistance across this genus. Augmenting this problem is an erroneous identification of Enterobacter strains because of ambiguous typing methods and imprecise taxonomy. In this study, we used a whole-genome-based comparative phylogenetic approach to (i) revisit and redefine the genus Enterobacter and (ii) unravel the emergence and evolution of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-harboring Enterobacter spp. Using genomic analysis of 447 sequenced strains, we developed an improved understanding of the species designations within this complex genus and identified the diverse mechanisms driving the molecular evolution of carbapenem resistance. The findings in this study provide a solid genomic framework that will serve as an important resource in the future development of molecular diagnostics and in supporting drug discovery programs. Copyright © 2016 Chavda et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GGT036: a furfural tolerant soil bacterium.

Enterobacter cloacae is a facultative anaerobic bacterium to be an important cause of nosocomial infection. However, the isolated E. cloacae GGT036 showed higher furfural-tolerant cellular growth, compared to industrial relevant strains such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 isolated from Mt. Gwanak, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The genomic DNA sequence of E. cloacae GGT036 will provide valuable genetic resources for engineering of industrially relevant strains being tolerant to cellular inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

In vivo evolution of bacterial resistance in two cases of Enterobacter aerogenes infections during treatment with imipenem.

Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are a major concern worldwide. Changes in membrane permeability, including decreased influx and/or increased efflux of antibiotics, are known as key contributors of bacterial MDR. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand molecular mechanisms that link membrane permeability to MDR in order to design new antimicrobial strategies. In this work, we describe genotype-phenotype correlations in Enterobacter aerogenes, a clinically problematic and antibiotic resistant bacterium. To do this, series of clinical isolates have been periodically collected from two patients during chemotherapy with imipenem. The isolates exhibited different levels of resistance towards multiple classes of antibiotics, consistently with the presence or the absence of porins and efflux pumps. Transport assays were used to characterize membrane permeability defects. Simultaneous genome-wide analysis allowed the identification of putative mutations responsible for MDR. The genome of the imipenem-susceptible isolate G7 was sequenced to closure and used as a reference for comparative genomics. This approach uncovered several loci that were specifically mutated in MDR isolates and whose products are known to control membrane permeability. These were omp35 and omp36, encoding the two major porins; rob, encoding a global AraC-type transcriptional activator; cpxA, phoQ and pmrB, encoding sensor kinases of the CpxRA, PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component regulatory systems, respectively. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane alterations relative to mutational steps in the evolution of MDR of a recognized nosocomial pathogen.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome of the switchgrass endophyte Enterobacter clocace P101.

The Enterobacter cloacae complex is genetically very diverse. The increasing number of complete genomic sequences of E. cloacae is helping to determine the exact relationship among members of the complex. E. cloacae P101 is an endophyte of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and is closely related to other E. cloacae strains isolated from plants. The P101 genome consists of a 5,369,929 bp chromosome. The chromosome has 5,164 protein-coding regions, 100 tRNA sequences, and 8 rRNA operons.


July 7, 2019  |  

Enterobacter asburiae strain L1: complete genome and whole genome optical mapping analysis of a quorum sensing bacterium.

Enterobacter asburiae L1 is a quorum sensing bacterium isolated from lettuce leaves. In this study, for the first time, the complete genome of E. asburiae L1 was sequenced using the single molecule real time sequencer (PacBio RSII) and the whole genome sequence was verified by using optical genome mapping (OpGen) technology. In our previous study, E. asburiae L1 has been reported to produce AHLs, suggesting the possibility of virulence factor regulation which is quorum sensing dependent. This evoked our interest to study the genome of this bacterium and here we present the complete genome of E. asburiae L1, which carries the virulence factor gene virK, the N-acyl homoserine lactone-based QS transcriptional regulator gene luxR and the N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene which we firstly named easI. The availability of the whole genome sequence of E. asburiae L1 will pave the way for the study of the QS-mediated gene expression in this bacterium. Hence, the importance and functions of these signaling molecules can be further studied in the hope of elucidating the mechanisms of QS-regulation in E. asburiae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of both a complete genome sequence and the establishment of the molecular basis of QS properties of E. asburiae.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08: A potential microbial strain for high rate hydrogen production.

Enterobacter sp. IIT-BT 08 belongs to Phylum: Proteobacteria, Class: Gammaproteobacteria, Order: Enterobacteriales, Family: Enterobacteriaceae. The organism was isolated from the leaves of a local plant near the Kharagpur railway station, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. It has been extensively studied for fermentative hydrogen production because of its high hydrogen yield. For further enhancement of hydrogen production by strain development, complete genome sequence analysis was carried out. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome was linear, 4.67 Mbp long and had a GC content of 56.01%. The genome properties encode 4,393 protein-coding and 179 RNA genes. Additionally, a putative pathway of hydrogen production was suggested based on the presence of formate hydrogen lyase complex and other related genes identified in the genome. Thus, in the present study we describe the specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence as well as discuss the putative pathway of hydrogen production by this organism.


July 7, 2019  |  

High-quality genome sequence of human pathogen Enterobacter asburiae type strain 1497-78(T).

Enterobacter asburiae belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), which comprises six heterogenic species. These bacteria can cause nosocomial infections. Moreover, they are well known for antibiotic resistance features based on overproduction of AmpC ß-lactamases. Although Ecc have clinical importance, little is known about their virulence-associated properties, and very few strains from the six species have been sequenced. In this study, the type strain of E. asburiae 1497-78(T) (ATCC 35953) was sequenced. The genome sequence of the type strain of E. asburiae will help us to understand antibiotic resistance and evolution in Ecc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae 704SK10, an OXA-48-encoding wastewater isolate.

Here we present the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae 704SK10, a Swiss wastewater isolate encoding an OXA-48 carbapenemase. Assembly resulted in closed sequences of the 4,876,946-bp chromosome, a 111,184-bp IncF plasmid, and an OXA-48-encoding IncL plasmid (63,458 bp) nearly identical to the previously described plasmid pOXA-48. Copyright © 2017 Marti et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Dissemination and characteristics of a novel plasmid-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D beta-lactamase, OXA-436 from four patients involving six different hospitals in Denmark.

The diversity of OXA-48-like carbapenemases is continually expanding. In this study, we describe the dissemination and characteristics of a novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D carbapenemase (CHDL) named OXA-436. In total, six OXA-436-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates including Enterobacter asburiae (n=3), Citrobacter freundii (n=2) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1) were identified in four patients in the period between September 2013 and April 2015. All three species of OXA-436-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in one patient. The amino acid sequence of OXA-436 showed 90.4-92.8% identity to other acquired OXA-48-like variants. Expression of OXA-436 in Escherichia coli and kinetic analysis of purified OXA-436 revealed an activity profile similar to OXA-48 and OXA-181 with activity against penicillins including temocillin, limited or no activity against extended-spectrum cephalosporins and activity against carbapenems. The blaOXA-436 gene was located on a conjugative ~314 kb IncHI2/IncHI2A plasmid belonging to pMLST ST1, in a region surrounded by chromosomal genes previously identified adjacent to blaOXA-genes in Shewanella spp. In conclusion, OXA-436 is a novel CHDL with similar functional properties as OXA-48-like CHDLs. The described geographical spread among different Enterobacteriaceae and plasmid location of blaOXA-436 illustrates its potential for further dissemination. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence analysis of Enterobacter sp. SA187, a plant multi-stress tolerance promoting endophytic bacterium

Enterobacter sp. SA187 is an endophytic bacterium that has been isolated from root nodules of the indigenous desert plant Indigofera argentea. SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic stress tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sequence of SA187 was obtained by using Pacific BioScience (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing technology, with average coverage of 275X. The genome of SA187 consists of one single 4,429,597 bp chromosome, with an average 56% GC content and 4,347 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDS), 153 ncRNA, 7 rRNA, and 84 tRNA. Functional analysis of the SA187 genome revealed a large number of genes involved in uptake and exchange of nutrients, chemotaxis, mobilization and plant colonization. A high number of genes were also found to be involved in survival, defense against oxidative stress and production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins. Moreover, different metabolic pathways were identified that potentially contribute to plant growth promotion. The information encoded in the genome of SA187 reveals the characteristics of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands.


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